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The 100 civics (history and government) questions and answers for the naturalization test are listed below. The civics test is an oral test and the USCIS Officer will ask the applicant up to 10 of the 100 civics questions. An applicant must answer 6 out of 10 questions correctly to pass the civics portion of the naturalization test.

On the naturalization test, some answers may change because of elections or appointments. As you study for the test, make sure that you know the most current answers to these questions. Answer these questions with the name of the official who is serving at the time of your eligibility interview with USCIS. The USCIS Officer will not accept an incorrect answer.

Although USCIS is aware that there may be additional correct answers to the 100 civics questions, applicants are encouraged to respond to the civics questions using the answers provided below.

 * If you are 65 years old or older and have been a legal permanent resident of the United States for 20 or more years, you may study just the questions that have been marked with an asterisk.

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

A: Principles of American Democracy

1. What is the supreme law of the land? Question 1 Audio (157KB MP3)

  • the Constitution

2. What does the Constitution do? Question 2 Audio (245KB MP3)

  • sets up the government
  • defines the government
  • protects basic rights of Americans

3. The idea of self-government is in the first three words of the Constitution. What are these words? Question 3 Audio (237KB MP3)

  • We the People

4. What is an amendment? Question 4 Audio (236KB MP3)

  • a change (to the Constitution)
  • an addition (to the Constitution)

5. What do we call the first ten amendments to the Constitution? Question 5 Audio (182KB MP3)

  • the Bill of Rights

6. What is one right or freedom from the First Amendment?* Question 6 Audio (314KB MP3)

  • speech
  • religion
  • assembly
  • press
  • petition the government

7. How many amendments does the Constitution have? Question 7 Audio (148KB MP3)

  • twenty-seven (27)

8. What did the Declaration of Independence do? Question 8 Audio (363KB MP3)

  • announced our independence (from Great Britain)
  • declared our independence (from Great Britain)
  • said that the United States is free (from Great Britain)

9. What are two rights in the Declaration of Independence? Question 9 Audio (232KB MP3)

  • life
  • liberty
  • pursuit of happiness

10. What is freedom of religion? Question 10 Audio (175KB MP3)

  • You can practice any religion, or not practice a religion.

11. What is the economic system in the United States?* Question 11 Audio (215KB MP3)

  • capitalist economy
  • market economy

12. What is the “rule of law”? Question 12 Audio (330KB MP3)

  • Everyone must follow the law.
  • Leaders must obey the law.
  • Government must obey the law.
  • No one is above the law.

B: System of Government

13. Name one branch or part of the government.* Question 13 Audio (358KB MP3)

  • Congress
  • legislative
  • President
  • executive
  • the courts
  • judicial

14. What stops one branch of government from becoming too powerful? Question 14 Audio (239KB MP3)

  • checks and balances
  • separation of powers

15. Who is in charge of the executive branch? Question 15 Audio (158KB MP3)

  • the President

16. Who makes federal laws? Question 16 Audio (284KB MP3)

  • Congress
  • Senate and House (of Representatives)
  • (U.S. or national) legislature

17. What are the two parts of the U.S. Congress?* Question 17 Audio (188KB MP3)

  • the Senate and House (of Representatives)

18. How many U.S. Senators are there? Question 18 Audio (151KB MP3)

  • one hundred (100)

19. We elect a U.S. Senator for how many years? Question 19 Audio (162KB MP3)

  • six (6)

20. Who is one of your state’s U.S. Senators now?* Question 20 Audio (361KB MP3)

  • Answers will vary. [District of Columbia residents and residents of U.S. territories should answer that D.C. (or the territory where the applicant lives) has no U.S. Senators.]

21. The House of Representatives has how many voting members? Question 21 Audio (181KB MP3)

  • four hundred thirty-five (435)

22. We elect a U.S. Representative for how many years? Question 22 Audio (166KB MP3)

  • two (2)

23. Name your U.S. Representative. Question 23 Audio (423KB MP3)

  • Answers will vary. [Residents of territories with nonvoting Delegates or Resident Commissioners may provide the name of that Delegate or Commissioner. Also acceptable is any statement that the territory has no (voting) Representatives in Congress.]

24. Who does a U.S. Senator represent? Question 24 Audio (158KB MP3)

  • all people of the state

25. Why do some states have more Representatives than other states? Question 25 Audio (325KB MP3)

  • (because of) the state’s population
  • (because) they have more people
  • (because) some states have more people

26. We elect a President for how many years? Question 26 Audio (153KB MP3)

  • four (4)

27. In what month do we vote for President?* Question 27 Audio (158KB MP3)

  • November

28. What is the name of the President of the United States now?* Question 28 Audio (222KB MP3)

  • Barack Obama
  • Obama

29. What is the name of the Vice President of the United States now? Question 29 Audio (283KB MP3)

  • Joseph R. Biden, Jr.
  • Joe Biden
  • Biden

30. If the President can no longer serve, who becomes President? Question 30 Audio (204KB MP3)

  • the Vice President

31. If both the President and the Vice President can no longer serve, who becomes President? Question 31 Audio (233KB MP3)

  • the Speaker of the House

32. Who is the Commander in Chief of the military? Question 32 Audio (158KB MP3)

  • the President

33. Who signs bills to become laws? Question 33 Audio (159KB MP3)

  • the President

34. Who vetoes bills? Question 34 Audio (142KB MP3)

  • the President

35. What does the President’s Cabinet do? Question 35 Audio (165KB MP3)

  • advises the President

36. What are two Cabinet-level positions? Question 36 Audio (1041KB MP3)

  • Secretary of Agriculture
  • Secretary of Commerce
  • Secretary of Defense
  • Secretary of Education
  • Secretary of Energy
  • Secretary of Health and Human Services
  • Secretary of Homeland Security
  • Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
  • Secretary of the Interior
  • Secretary of Labor
  • Secretary of State
  • Secretary of Transportation
  • Secretary of the Treasury
  • Secretary of Veterans Affairs
  • Attorney General
  • Vice President

37. What does the judicial branch do? Question 37 Audio (350KB MP3)

  • reviews laws
  • explains laws
  • resolves disputes (disagreements)
  • decides if a law goes against the Constitution

38. What is the highest court in the United States? Question 38 Audio (160KB MP3)

  • the Supreme Court

39. How many justices are on the Supreme Court? Question 39 Audio (143KB MP3)

  • nine (9)

40. Who is the Chief Justice of the United States now? Question 40 Audio (233KB MP3)

  • John Roberts (John G. Roberts, Jr.)

41. Under our Constitution, some powers belong to the federal government. What is one power of the federal government? Question 41 Audio (409KB MP3)

  • to print money
  • to declare war
  • to create an army
  • to make treaties

42. Under our Constitution, some powers belong to the states. What is one power of the states? Question 42 Audio (486KB MP3)

  • provide schooling and education
  • provide protection (police)
  • provide safety (fire departments)
  • give a driver’s license
  • approve zoning and land use

43. Who is the Governor of your state now? Question 43 Audio (241KB MP3)

  • Answers will vary. [District of Columbia residents should answer that D.C. does not have a Governor.]

44. What is the capital of your state?* Question 44 Audio (376KB MP3)

  • Answers will vary. [District of Columbia residents should answer that D.C. is not a state and does not have a capital. Residents of U.S. territories should name the capital of the territory.]

45. What are the two major political parties in the United States?* Question 45 Audio (191KB MP3)

  • Democratic and Republican

46. What is the political party of the President now? Question 46 Audio (165KB MP3)

  • Democratic (Party)

47. What is the name of the Speaker of the House of Representatives now? Question 47 Audio (180KB MP3)

  • (John) Boehner

C: Rights and Responsibilities

48. There are four amendments to the Constitution about who can vote. Describe one of them. Question 48 Audio (469KB MP3)

  • Citizens eighteen (18) and older (can vote).
  • You don’t have to pay (a poll tax) to vote.
  • Any citizen can vote. (Women and men can vote.)
  • A male citizen of any race (can vote).

49. What is one responsibility that is only for United States citizens?* Question 49 Audio (265KB MP3)

  • serve on a jury
  • vote in a federal election

50. Name one right only for United States citizens. Question 50 Audio (243KB MP3)

  • vote in a federal election
  • run for federal office

51. What are two rights of everyone living in the United States? Question 51 Audio (438KB MP3)

  • freedom of expression
  • freedom of speech
  • freedom of assembly
  • freedom to petition the government
  • freedom of worship
  • the right to bear arms

52. What do we show loyalty to when we say the Pledge of Allegiance? Question 52 Audio (236KB MP3)

  • the United States
  • the flag

53. What is one promise you make when you become a United States citizen? Question 53 Audio (579KB MP3)

  • give up loyalty to other countries
  • defend the Constitution and laws of the United States
  • obey the laws of the United States
  • serve in the U.S. military (if needed)
  • serve (do important work for) the nation (if needed)
  • be loyal to the United States

54. How old do citizens have to be to vote for President?* Question 54 Audio (180KB MP3)

  • eighteen (18) and older

55. What are two ways that Americans can participate in their democracy? Question 55 Audio (682KB MP3)

  • vote
  • join a political party
  • help with a campaign
  • join a civic group
  • join a community group
  • give an elected official your opinion on an issue
  • call Senators and Representatives
  • publicly support or oppose an issue or policy
  • run for office
  • write to a newspaper

56. When is the last day you can send in federal income tax forms?* Question 56 Audio (184KB MP3)

  • April 15

57. When must all men register for the Selective Service? Question 57 Audio (261KB MP3)

  • at age eighteen (18)
  • between eighteen (18) and twenty-six (26)

AMERICAN HISTORY

A: Colonial Period and Independence

58. What is one reason colonists came to America? Question 58 Audio (392KB MP3)

  • freedom
  • political liberty
  • religious freedom
  • economic opportunity
  • practice their religion
  • escape persecution

59. Who lived in America before the Europeans arrived? Question 59 Audio (193KB MP3)

  • American Indians
  • Native Americans

60. What group of people was taken to America and sold as slaves? Question 60 Audio (221KB MP3)

  • Africans
  • people from Africa

61. Why did the colonists fight the British? Question 61 Audio (357KB MP3)

  • because of high taxes (taxation without representation)
  • because the British army stayed in their houses (boarding, quartering)
  • because they didn’t have self-government

62. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? Question 62 Audio (150KB MP3)

  • (Thomas) Jefferson

63. When was the Declaration of Independence adopted? Question 63 Audio (188KB MP3)

  • July 4, 1776

64. There were 13 original states. Name three. Question 64 Audio (660KB MP3)

  • New Hampshire
  • Massachusetts
  • Rhode Island
  • Connecticut
  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Delaware
  • Maryland
  • Virginia
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Georgia

65. What happened at the Constitutional Convention? Question 65 Audio (245KB MP3)

  • The Constitution was written.
  • The Founding Fathers wrote the Constitution.

66. When was the Constitution written? Question 66 Audio (159KB MP3)

  • 1787

67. The Federalist Papers supported the passage of the U.S. Constitution. Name one of the writers. Question 67 Audio (359KB MP3)

  • (James) Madison
  • (Alexander) Hamilton
  • (John) Jay
  • Publius

68. What is one thing Benjamin Franklin is famous for? Question 68 Audio (441KB MP3)

  • U.S. diplomat
  • oldest member of the Constitutional Convention
  • first Postmaster General of the United States
  • writer of “Poor Richard’s Almanac”
  • started the first free libraries

69. Who is the “Father of Our Country”? Question 69 Audio (139KB MP3)

  • (George) Washington

70. Who was the first President?* Question 70 Audio (142KB MP3)

  • (George) Washington

B: 1800s

71. What territory did the United States buy from France in 1803? Question 71 Audio (253KB MP3)

  • the Louisiana Territory
  • Louisiana

72. Name one war fought by the United States in the 1800s. Question 72 Audio (361KB MP3)

  • War of 1812
  • Mexican-American War
  • Civil War
  • Spanish-American War

73. Name the U.S. war between the North and the South. Question 73 Audio (241KB MP3)

  • the Civil War
  • the War between the States

74. Name one problem that led to the Civil War. Question 74 Audio (274KB MP3)

  • slavery
  • economic reasons
  • states’ rights

75. What was one important thing that Abraham Lincoln did?* Question 75 Audio (360KB MP3)

  • freed the slaves (Emancipation Proclamation)
  • saved (or preserved) the Union
  • led the United States during the Civil War

76. What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? Question 76 Audio (387KB MP3)

  • freed the slaves
  • freed slaves in the Confederacy
  • freed slaves in the Confederate states
  • freed slaves in most Southern states

77. What did Susan B. Anthony do? Question 77 Audio (236KB MP3)

  • fought for women’s rights
  • fought for civil rights

C: Recent American History and Other Important Historical Information

78. Name one war fought by the United States in the 1900s.* Question 78 Audio (383KB MP3)

  • World War I
  • World War II
  • Korean War
  • Vietnam War
  • (Persian) Gulf War

79. Who was President during World War I? Question 79 Audio (161KB MP3)

  • (Woodrow) Wilson

80. Who was President during the Great Depression and World War II? Question 80 Audio (200KB MP3)

  • (Franklin) Roosevelt

81. Who did the United States fight in World War II? Question 81 Audio (204KB MP3)

  • Japan, Germany, and Italy

82. Before he was President, Eisenhower was a general. What war was he in? Question 82 Audio (221KB MP3)

  • World War II

83. During the Cold War, what was the main concern of the United States? Question 83 Audio (204KB MP3)

  • Communism

84. What movement tried to end racial discrimination? Question 84 Audio (173KB MP3)

  • civil rights (movement)

85. What did Martin Luther King, Jr. do?* Question 85 Audio (241KB MP3)

  • fought for civil rights
  • worked for equality for all Americans

86. What major event happened on September 11, 2001, in the United States? Question 86 Audio (231KB MP3)

  • Terrorists attacked the United States.

87. Name one American Indian tribe in the United States. Question 87 Audio (1154KB MP3)

[USCIS Officers will be supplied with a list of federally recognized American Indian tribes.]

  • Cherokee
  • Navajo
  • Sioux
  • Chippewa
  • Choctaw
  • Pueblo
  • Apache
  • Iroquois
  • Creek
  • Blackfeet
  • Seminole
  • Cheyenne
  • Arawak
  • Shawnee
  • Mohegan
  • Huron
  • Oneida
  • Lakota
  • Crow
  • Teton
  • Hopi
  • Inuit

INTEGRATED CIVICS

A: Geography

88. Name one of the two longest rivers in the United States. Question 88 Audio (231KB MP3)

  • Missouri (River)
  • Mississippi (River)

89. What ocean is on the West Coast of the United States? Question 89 Audio (184KB MP3)

  • Pacific (Ocean)

90. What ocean is on the East Coast of the United States? Question 90 Audio (183KB MP3)

  • Atlantic (Ocean)

91. Name one U.S. territory. Question 91 Audio (349KB MP3)

  • Puerto Rico
  • U.S. Virgin Islands
  • American Samoa
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Guam

92. Name one state that borders Canada. Question 92 Audio (625KB MP3)

  • Maine
  • New Hampshire
  • Vermont
  • New York
  • Pennsylvania
  • Ohio
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • North Dakota
  • Montana
  • Idaho
  • Washington
  • Alaska

93. Name one state that borders Mexico. Question 93 Audio (288KB MP3)

  • California
  • Arizona
  • New Mexico
  • Texas

94. What is the capital of the United States?* Question 94 Audio (170KB MP3)

  • Washington, D.C.

95. Where is the Statue of Liberty?* Question 95 Audio (317KB MP3)

  • New York (Harbor)
  • Liberty Island

[Also acceptable are New Jersey, near New York City, and on the Hudson (River).]

B: Symbols

96. Why does the flag have 13 stripes? Question 96 Audio (282KB MP3)

  • because there were 13 original colonies
  • because the stripes represent the original colonies

97. Why does the flag have 50 stars?* Question 97 Audio (309KB MP3)

  • because there is one star for each state
  • because each star represents a state
  • because there are 50 states

98. What is the name of the national anthem? Question 98 Audio (170KB MP3)

  • The Star-Spangled Banner

C: Holidays

99. When do we celebrate Independence Day?* Question 99 Audio (221KB MP3)

  • July 4

100. Name two national U.S. holidays. Question 100 Audio (927KB MP3)

  • New Year’s Day
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
  • Presidents’ Day
  • Memorial Day
  • Independence Day
  • Labor Day
  • Columbus Day
  • Veterans Day
  • Thanksgiving
  • Christmas