USCIS Policy Manual

VOLUME 12: CITIZENSHIP & NATURALIZATION

PART D: GENERAL NATURALIZATION REQUIREMENTS

Chapter 1: Purpose and Background


A. Purpose


Naturalization is the conferring of U.S. citizenship after birth by any means whatsoever.[1] See INA 101(a)(23). There are various ways a foreign citizen or national may become a U.S. citizen through the process of naturalization. This chapter addresses the general naturalization requirements.[2] See INA 316. See relevant parts in Volume 12 [12 USCIS-PM] for other naturalization provisions and requirements. 


The applicant has the burden of establishing by a preponderance of the evidence that he or she meets the requirements for naturalization. 


B. General Eligibility Requirements


The following are the general naturalization requirements that an applicant must meet in order to become a U.S. citizen:[3] See INA 316.


General Eligibility Requirements for Naturalization 

The applicant must be age 18 or older at the time of filing for naturalization

The applicant must be an LPR for at least five years before being eligible for naturalization

The applicant must have continuous residence in the United States as an LPR for at least five years immediately preceding the date of filing the application and up to the time of admission to citizenship

The applicant must be physically present in the United States for at least 30 months out of the five years immediately preceding the date of filing the application

The applicant must have lived within the State or USCIS district with jurisdiction over the applicant’s place of residence for at least three months prior to the date of filing

The applicant must demonstrate good moral character for five years prior to filing for naturalization, and during the period leading up to the administration of the Oath of Allegiance

The applicant must have an attachment to the principles of the U.S. Constitution and be well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States during all relevant periods under the law

The applicant must be able to read, write, and speak and understand English and have knowledge and an understanding of U.S. history and government


C. Legal Authorities


  • INA 312(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9833.html)8 CFR 312(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30674/0-0-0-30679.html#0-0-0-19429) – Educational Requirements for Naturalization

  • INA 316(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html)8 CFR 316(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-30966.html#0-0-0-19571) – General Requirements for Naturalization

  • INA 318(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9928.html) – Prerequisites to Naturalization


Chapter 2: LPR Admission for Naturalization


A. LPR at Time of Filing and Naturalization


In general, an applicant for naturalization must be at least 18 years old and must establish that he or she has been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence at the time of filing the naturalization application.[4] See INA 101(a)(20) and INA 334(b). See 8 CFR 316.2(a)(2).  An applicant is not lawfully admitted for permanent residence in accordance with all applicable provisions of the INA if his or her LPR status was obtained by mistake or fraud, or if the admission was otherwise not in compliance with the law.[5] See INA 318. See Matter of Koloamatangi, 23 I & N Dec 548, 550 (2003). See Estrada-Ramos v. Holder, 611 F.3d 318, (7th Cir. 2010). See Mejia-Orellana v. Gonzales, 502 F.3d 13 (1st Cir 2007). See De La Rosa v DHS, 489 F.3d 551 (2nd Cir 2007). See Savoury v. U.S. Attorney General, 449 F.3d 1307 (11th Cir 2006). See Arellano-Garcia v. Gonzales, 429 F.3d 1183 (8th Cir 2005). See Monet v. INS, 791 F.2d 752 (9th Cir. 1986). See Matter of Longstaff, 716 F.2d 1439, 1441 (5th Cir. 1983).


In determining an applicant’s eligibility for naturalization, USCIS must determine whether the LPR status was lawfully obtained, not just whether the applicant is in possession of a Permanent Resident Card (PRC). If the status was not lawfully obtained for any reason, the applicant is not lawfully admitted for permanent residence in accordance with all applicable provisions of the INA, and is ineligible for naturalization even though the applicant possesses a PRC.


An applicant must also reside continuously in the U.S. for at least five years as an LPR at the time of filing,[6] See Chapter 3, Continuous Residence [12 USCIS-PM D.3]. though the applicant may file his or her application up to 90 days before reaching the five-year continuous residence period.[7] See Chapter 6, Jurisdiction, Place of Residence, and Early Filing [12 USCIS-PM D.6].


B. Conditional Residence in the General Requirements (INA 316(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html))


A conditional permanent resident (CPR) filing for naturalization under the general provision on the basis of his or her permanent resident status for five years[8] See INA 316(a). must have met all of the applicable requirements of the conditional residence provisions.[9] See INA 216.  CPRs are not eligible for naturalization unless the conditions on their resident status have been removed because such CPRs have not been lawfully admitted for permanent residence in accordance with all applicable provisions of the INA.[10] See INA 216 and INA 318.  Unless USCIS approves the applicant’s Petition to Remove the Conditions of Residence (Form I-751(http://www.uscis.gov/i-751)), the applicant remains ineligible for naturalization.[11] See Part G, Spouses of U.S. Citizens [12 USCIS-PM G]; Part H, Children of U.S. Citizens [12 USCIS-PM H]; and Part I, Military Members and their Families [12 USCIS-PM I], for special circumstances under which where the applicant may not be required to have an approved petition to remove conditions prior naturalization.


C. Exceptions


1. Nationals of the United States


The law provides an exception to the LPR requirement for naturalization for non-citizen nationals of the United States. Currently, persons who are born in American Samoa or Swains Island, which are outlying possessions of the United States, are considered nationals of the United States.[12] See INA 101(a)(29) and INA 308. 


A non-citizen national of the United States may be naturalized without establishing lawful admission for permanent residence if he or she becomes a resident of any State[13] See INA 325. See 8 CFR 325.2. Non-citizen nationals may satisfy the residence and physical presence requirements through their residence and presence within any of the outlying possessions of the United States. and complies with all other applicable requirements of the naturalization laws. These nationals are not “aliens” as defined in the INA and do not possess a Permanent Resident Card (PRC).[14] See INA 101(a)(20). 


2. Certain Members of the U.S. Armed Forces


Certain members of the U.S. armed forces with service under specified conditions are also exempt from the LPR requirement.[15] See Part I, Military Members and their Families, Chapter 3, Military Service during Hostilities (INA 329) [12 USCIS-PM I.3].


D. Documentation and Evidence


USCIS issues a PRC to each person who has been lawfully admitted for permanent residence as evidence of his or her status. LPRs over 18 years of age are required to have their PRC in their possession as evidence of their status.[16] See INA 264(e). The PRC contains the date and the classification under which the person was accorded LPR status. The PRC alone, however, is insufficient to establish that the applicant has been lawfully admitted for permanent residence in accordance with all applicable provisions of the INA.[17] See Section A, LPR at Time of Filing and Naturalization [12 USCIS-PM D.2(A)]. 


Chapter 3: Continuous Residence


A. Continuous Residence Requirement


An applicant for naturalization under the general provision[18] See INA 316(a). must have resided continuously in the United States after his or her LPR admission for at least five years prior to filing the naturalization application and up to the time of naturalization. An applicant must also establish that he or she has resided in the State or Service District having jurisdiction over the application for three months prior to filing.[19] See INA 316(a). See Chapter 6, Jurisdiction, Place of Residence, and Early Filing [12 USCIS-PM D.6].


The concept of continuous residence involves the applicant maintaining a permanent dwelling place in the United States over the period of time required by the statute. The residence in question “is the same as that alien’s domicile, or principal actual dwelling place, without regard to the alien’s intent, and the duration of an alien’s residence in a particular location measured from the moment the alien first establishes residence in that location.”[20] See 8 CFR 316.5(a). Accordingly, the applicant’s residence is generally the applicant’s actual physical location regardless of his or her intentions to claim it as his or her residence.


Certain classes of applicants may be eligible for a reduced period of continuous residence, for constructive continuous residence while outside the United States, or for an exemption from the continuous residence requirement altogether.[21] See Chapter 5, Modifications and Exceptions to Continuous Residence and Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.5]. These classes of applicants include certain military members and certain spouses of U.S. citizens.[22] See Part I, Military Members and their Families [12 USCIS-PM I].


The requirements of “continuous residence” and “physical presence” are interrelated but are different requirements. Each requirement must be satisfied (unless otherwise specified) in order for the applicant to be eligible for naturalization.[23] See Chapter 4, Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.4].


B. Maintenance of Continuous Residence following LPR Status


USCIS will consider the entire period from the LPR admission until the present when determining an applicant’s compliance with the continuous residence requirement.


An order of removal terminates the applicant's status as an LPR and therefore disrupts the continuity of residence for purposes of naturalization. However, an applicant who has been readmitted as an LPR after a deferred inspection or by an immigration judge in removal proceedings can satisfy the residence and physical presence requirements in the same manner as any other applicant for naturalization.[24] See 8 CFR 316.5(c)(3) and 8 CFR 316.5(c)(4). 


Other examples that may raise a rebuttal presumption that an applicant has abandoned his or her LPR status include cases where there is evidence that the applicant voluntarily claimed nonresident alien status to qualify for special exemptions from income tax liability or fails to file either federal or state income tax returns because he or she considers himself or herself to be a non-resident alien.[25] See 8 CFR 316.5(c)(2).


C. Breaks in Continuous Residence


An applicant for naturalization has the burden of establishing that he or she has complied with the continuous residence requirement, if applicable. There are two types of absences from the United States that are automatically presumed to break the continuity of residence for purposes of naturalization.[26] See INA 316(b).


  • Absences of more than 6 months but less than one year; and

  • Absences of one year or more. 


In addition, absences of less than 6 months may also break the continuity of residence depending on the facts surrounding the absence.


1. Absence of More than Six Months (but Less than One Year) 


An absence of more than six months (more than 181 days but less than one year (less than 365 days)) during the period for which continuous residence is required is presumed to break the continuity of such residence. This includes any absence that takes place prior to filing the naturalization application or between filing and the applicant’s admission to citizenship.[27] See INA 336 (Hearings on Denials of Applications for Naturalization).


An applicant’s intent is not relevant in determining the location of his or her residence. The period of absence from the United States is the defining factor in determining whether the applicant is presumed to have disrupted his or her residence. 


An applicant may overcome the presumption of loss of his or her continuity of residence by providing evidence to establish that the applicant did not disrupt his or her residence. The evidence may include, but is not limited to, documentation that during the absence:[28] See 8 CFR 316.5(c)(1)(i). 


  • The applicant did not terminate his or her employment in the United States or obtain employment while abroad.

  • The applicant’s immediate family remained in the United States.

  • The applicant retained full access to his or her United States abode.


2. Absence of One Year or More 


An absence from the United States for a continuous period of one year or more (365 days or more) during the period for which continuous residence is required will break the continuity of residence. This applies whether the absence takes place prior to or after filing the naturalization application.[29] See INA 316(b).


The naturalization application of a person who is subject to the continuous residence requirement must be denied for failure to meet the continuous residence requirements if the person has been continuously absent for a period of one year or more without qualifying for the exception benefits of INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689). An applicant who is absent for one year or more to engage in qualifying employment abroad may be permitted to preserve his or her residence.[30] See Section D, Preserving Residence for Naturalization (Form N-470) [12 USCIS-PM D.3(D)].


3. Eligibility after Break in Residence


An applicant who is required to establish continuous residence for at least five years[31] See INA 316(a). and whose application for naturalization is denied for an absence of one year or longer, may apply for naturalization four years and one day after returning to the United States to resume permanent residence. An applicant who is subject to the three-year continuous residence requirement[32] See INA 319(a). may apply two years and one day after returning to the United States to resume permanent residence.[33] See 8 CFR 316.5(c)(1)(ii).


D. Preserving Residence for Naturalization (Form N-470(http://www.uscis.gov/n-470))


Certain applicants[34] See Chapter 5, Modifications and Exceptions to Continuous Residence and Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.5], for classes of applicants eligible to preserve residence. may seek to preserve their residence for an absence of one year or more to engage in qualifying employment abroad.[35] The applicant may also need to apply for a reentry permit to be permitted to enter the United States. Such applicants must file an Application to Preserve Residence for Naturalization Purposes (Form N-470(http://www.uscis.gov/n-470)) in accordance with the form instructions.


In order to qualify, the following criteria must be met:


  • The applicant must have been physically present in the United States as an LPR for an uninterrupted period of at least one year prior to working abroad.


  • The application may be filed either before or after the applicant’s employment begins, but before the applicant has been abroad for a continuous period of one year.[36] See 8 CFR 316.5(d).


In addition, the applicant must have been:



  • Employed by an American firm or corporation engaged in the development of U.S. foreign trade and commerce, or a subsidiary thereof if more than 50 percent of its stock is owned by an American firm or corporation; or


  • Employed by a public international organization of which the United States is a member by a treaty or statute and by which the applicant was not employed until after becoming an LPR.[38] See INA 316(b). See 8 CFR 316.20.


The applicant’s spouse and dependent unmarried sons and daughters are also entitled to such benefits during the period when they were residing abroad as dependent members of the principal applicant’s household. The application’s approval notice will include the applicant and any dependent family members who were also granted the benefit.


The approval of an application to preserve residence does not relieve an applicant (or any family members) from any applicable required period of physical presence, unless the applicant was employed by, or under contract with, the U.S. Government.[39] See INA 316(c). See Chapter 5, Modifications and Exceptions to Continuous Residence and Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.5]. 


In addition, the approval of an application to preserve residence does not guarantee that the applicant (or any family members) will not be found, upon returning to the United States, to have lost LPR status through abandonment. USCIS may find that an applicant who claimed special tax exemptions as a nonresident alien to have lost LPR status through abandonment. The applicant may overcome that presumption with acceptable evidence establishing that he or she did not abandon his or her LPR status.[40] See Matter of Huang, 19 I&N Dec. 749 (BIA 1988). In removal proceedings, DHS bears the burden of proving abandonment by clear and convincing evidence. But if the probative evidence is sufficient to meet that standard of proof, approval of the application to preserve residence, by itself, would not preclude a finding of abandonment.  


Approval of an application to preserve residence also does not relieve the LPR of the need to have an appropriate travel document when the LPR seeks to return to the United States.[41] See INA 212(a)(7)(A).  A PRC card, generally, is acceptable as a travel document only if the person has been absent for less than one year.[42] See 8 CFR 211.1(a)(2).  If an LPR expects to be absent for more than one year, the LPR should also apply for a reentry permit. The LPR must actually be in the United States when he or she applies for a reentry permit.[43] See 8 CFR 223.2(b)(1). 


E. Residence in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 


As of November 28, 2009, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is defined as a State in the United States for naturalization purposes.[44] See INA 101(a)(36) and INA 101(a)(38). See 48 U.S.C. 1806(a) and 48 U.S.C. 1806(f). See section 705(b) of the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008 (CNRA), Pub. L.110-229 (48 U.S.C. 1806 note). Previously, residence in the CNMI only counted as residence in the United States for naturalization purposes for an alien who was an immediate relative of a U.S. citizen residing in the CNMI.


All other noncitizens, including any non-immediate relative lawful permanent residents (LPR), were considered to be residing outside of the United States for immigration purposes. Therefore, some LPRs residing in the CNMI, before the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008 (CNRA) was enacted, were considered to have abandoned their lawful permanent resident status if they continuously lived in the CNMI.


Under the current law, USCIS no longer considers lawful permanent residents to have abandoned their LPR status solely by residing in the CNMI. This provision is retroactive and provides for the restoration of permanent resident status. However, the provision did not provide that the residence would count towards the naturalization continuous and physical presence requirements. Therefore, USCIS will only count residence in the CNMI on or after November 28, 2009, as continuous residence within the United States for naturalization purposes.[45] See section 705(c) of the CNRA (48 U.S.C. 1806 note). See Eche v. Holder, 694 F.3d 1026 (9th Cir. 2012).  


F. Documentation and Evidence 


Mere possession of a Permanent Resident Card (PRC) for the period of time required for continuous residence does not in itself establish the applicant’s continuous residence for naturalization purposes. The applicant must demonstrate actual maintenance of his or her principal dwelling place, without regard to intent, in the United States through testimony and documentation.


For example, a “commuter alien” may have held and used a PRC[46] See 8 CFR 211.5. for seven years, but would not be eligible for naturalization until he or she had actually taken up permanent residence in the United States and maintained such residence for the required statutory period.


USCIS will review all of the relevant records to determine whether the applicant has met the required period of continuous residence. The applicant's testimony will also be considered to determine whether the applicant met the required period of continuous residence. 


Chapter 4: Physical Presence


A. Physical Presence Requirement 


An applicant for naturalization is generally required to have been physically present in the United States for at least half the time for which his or her continuous residence is required. Applicants for naturalization under INA 316(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7681) are required to demonstrate physical presence in the United States for at least 30 months (at least 913 days) before filing the application.[47] See INA 316(a). See 8 CFR 316.2. 


Physical presence refers to the number of days the applicant must physically be present in the United States during the statutory period up to the date of filing for naturalization. The continuous residence[48] See Chapter 3, Continuous Residence [12 USCIS-PM D.3]. and physical presence requirements are interrelated but each must be satisfied for naturalization. 


USCIS will count the day that an applicant departs from the United States and the day he or she returns as days of physical presence within the United States for naturalization purposes.[49] USCIS will only count residence in the CNMI on or after November 28, 2009, as time counted for physical presence within the United States for naturalization purposes.


B. Documentation and Evidence


Mere possession of a PRC for the period of time required for physical presence does not in itself establish the applicant’s physical presence for naturalization purposes. The applicant must demonstrate actual physical presence in the United States through documentation. USCIS will review all of the relevant records to assist with the determination of whether the applicant has met the required period of physical presence. The applicant's testimony will also be considered in determining whether the applicant met the required period of physical presence.


Chapter 5: Modifications and Exceptions to Continuous Residence and Physical Presence


Certain classes of applicants may be eligible for a reduced period of continuous residence and physical presence. Certain applicants may also be eligible to count time residing abroad as residence and physical presence in the United States for naturalization purposes.


Other applicants may be exempt from the residence or physical presence requirement, or both. Although not required in all cases, applicants are generally required to have been “physically present and residing within the United States for an uninterrupted period of at least one year” at some time after becoming an LPR and before filing to qualify for an exemption.


A. Qualifying Employment Abroad


The table below serves as a quick reference guide on certain continuous residence and physical presence provisions for persons residing abroad under qualifying employment. The paragraphs that follow the table provide further guidance on each class of applicant.


Continuous Residence and Physical Presence

for Qualifying Employment Abroad

Employer or Vocation

Provision

Continuous Residence

Physical Presence

United States Government or Contractor

INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689)

INA 316(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7695)

Preserves residence through N-470(http://www.uscis.gov/n-470) process

Exempt

through N-470(http://www.uscis.gov/n-470) process

American Institution of Research

INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689)

INA 316(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7695)

Preserves residence through N-470(http://www.uscis.gov/n-470) process

Must meet regular

statutory requirement

American Firm

INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689)

INA 316(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7695)

Preserves residence through N-470(http://www.uscis.gov/n-470) process

Must meet regular

statutory requirement

Media Organizations

INA 319(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9934.html#0-0-0-7733)

Exempt

Interpreter, Translator, or Security-related Position (Executive or Manager) 

Sec. 1059(e) of Pub. L. 109‑163

Entire period abroad may count as continuous residence and physical presence in United States if engaged in qualifying employment for any portion of period abroad

Religious Vocation

INA 317(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9918.html)

Time residing abroad in religious vocation may count as residence and physical presence in United States


1. Employee of U.S. Government or Specified Entities


LPRs who have been continuously physically present in the United States for at least one year before filing an application to preserve residence and who obtain approval of the application from USCIS for employment by or contract with the U.S. Government abroad will not break the continuity of their residence during such time abroad. Such persons are exempt from the physical presence requirement.[50] See INA 316(b) and INA 316(c). Persons employed by or under contract with the Central Intelligence Agency can accrue the required year of continuous physical presence at any time prior to applying for naturalization and not just before filing the application to preserve residence.[51] See INA 316(c). 


LPRs who have been continuously physically present in the United States for at least one year before filing an application to preserve residence and who obtain approval of the application from USCIS for employment abroad by an American institution of research recognized as such by the Attorney General (now DHS Secretary) or by an American firm[52] USCIS has adopted the AAO decision in Matter of Chawathe. The decision states that under INA 316(b), a publicly held corporation may be deemed an “American firm or corporation” if the applicant establishes that the corporation is both incorporated and trades its stock exclusively on U.S. Stock Exchange markets. If the applicant is unable to meet this qualification, then he or she must meet the requirements under Matter of Warrach, 17 I & N Dec 285, 286-287 (Reg. Comm. 1979). USCIS then determines the nationality of the corporation by reviewing whether more than 50 percent is owned by U.S. citizens. The applicant must establish this by a preponderance of the evidence. engaged in development of U.S. foreign trade and commerce or its subsidiary, or a public international organization, will not break the continuity of their residence during such time abroad. Such applicants are subject to the physical presence requirement.[53] See INA 316(b) and INA 316(c). See 8 CFR 316.20. See www.uscis.gov/AIR for a list of recognized organizations.


Only applicants who are employed by or under contract with the U.S. Government may be exempt from the physical presence requirements. All other applicants who are eligible to preserve their residence remain subject to the physical presence requirement.


The applicant’s spouse and dependent unmarried sons and daughters, included in the application, are entitled to the same benefits for the period during which they were residing abroad with the applicant.[54] See INA 316(b)(2). See 8 CFR 316.5(d)(1)(ii).


2. Employee of Certain Media Organizations Abroad 


An applicant for naturalization employed by a U.S. incorporated nonprofit communications media organization that disseminates information significantly promoting United States interests abroad, that is so recognized by the Secretary of Homeland Security, is exempt from the continuous residence and physical presence requirements if:


  • The applicant files the application for naturalization while still employed, or within six months of termination of employment;


  • The applicant has been continuously employed with the organization for at least five years after becoming an LPR;


  • The applicant is within the United States at the time of naturalization; and



3. Employed as an Interpreter, Translator, or Security-related Position (Executive or Manager)[56] See section 1059(e) of the National Defense Authorization Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109-163 [8 U.S.C. 1101 Note] (January 6, 2006), as amended. The subsection ‘(e)’ provision relating to naturalization was added to section 1059 on June 15, 2007. The amendments state that certain persons do not break the continuity of their residence in the United States for naturalization purposes during time abroad if employed abroad by, or under contract with, the Chief of Mission (Department of State) or by the U.S. armed forces as an interpreter or translator in Iraq or Afghanistan. See Pub. L. 110-36 (June 15, 2007). On December 28, 2012, section 1059(e) was further amended by adding certain security-related positions (in an executive or managerial capacity), in addition to interpreters and translators, as types of qualifying employment. The amendments also removed the geographical limitation of qualifying employment within Iraq or Afghanistan. See Pub. L. 112-227 (December 28, 2012).


Time Abroad as Continuous Residence and Physical Presence in the United States


An applicant’s time employed abroad by, or under contract with, the Chief of Mission (Department of State) or by the U.S. armed forces as an interpreter, translator, or in a security-related position in an executive or managerial capacity[57] See INA 101(a)(44)(A) and INA 101(a)(44)(B) for statutory definitions of the terms “managerial capacity” and “executive capacity.” See 8 CFR 204.5(j)(2), 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(B), and 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(C). See Adjudicator’s Field Manual, Chapter 22.2(i)(3)(D) – (G) for further guidance on managerial and executive capacity and the evaluation of such positions. does not break any period for which continuous residence or physical presence in the United States is required for naturalization. The period abroad under such employment is treated as a period of residence and physical presence in the United States for naturalization purposes.


This benefit commonly referred to as the “section 1059(e)” provision only applies to the continuous residence and physical presence naturalization requirements. Applicants must still meet all other requirements for naturalization. The applicant has the responsibility of providing all documentation to establish eligibility.[58] Public Law 110-36 added section 1059(e) to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, which added the interpreter and translator provisions.

 

Qualifying Employment Abroad


In order to count time abroad as continuous residence and physical presence in the United States for purposes of naturalization under the “section 1059(e)” provision, the applicant must meet all of the following requirements during such time abroad:


  • The applicant must be:

    • Employed by the Chief of Mission or the U.S. armed forces,

    • Under contract with the Chief of Mission or the U.S. armed forces, or

    • Employed by a firm or corporation under contract with the Chief of Mission or the U.S. armed forces;


  • The applicant must be employed as:

    • An interpreter,

    • Translator, or

    • In a security-related position in an executive or managerial capacity; and


  • The applicant must have spent at least a portion of the time abroad working directly with the Chief of Mission or the U.S. armed forces.


Security-related Position Must be in an Executive or Managerial Capacity[59] See INA 101(a)(44)(A) and INA 101(a)(44)(B) for statutory definitions of the terms “managerial capacity” and “executive capacity.” See 8 CFR 204.5(j)(2), 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(B), and 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(C). See Adjudicator’s Field Manual, Chapter 22.2(i)(3)(D) – (G) for further guidance on managerial and executive capacity and the evaluation of such positions. See Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM), 9 FAM 41.54, Intracompany Transferees (Executives, Managers, and Specialists).


An applicant who was in a security-related position must have been in an executive or managerial capacity under such employment to qualify for the section 1059(e) benefits. USCIS uses the same definitions and general considerations that apply to other employment-based scenarios in the immigration context when determining whether an applicant worked in an executive or managerial capacity.


In general, an executive or managerial capacity requires a high level of authority and a broad range of job responsibilities. Managers and executives plan, organize, direct, and control an organization’s major functions and work through other employees to achieve the organization’s goals. The duties of the security-related position must primarily be of an executive or managerial nature, and a majority of the executive’s or manager’s time must be spent on duties relating to policy or operational management. This does not preclude the executive or manager from regularly applying his or her professional expertise to functions that are not executive or managerial in nature.


To be employed in an “executive capacity” means an assignment within an organization in which the employee primarily:


  • Directs the management of the organization or a major component or function of the organization;


  • Establishes the goals and policies of the organization, component, or function;


  • Exercises wide latitude in discretionary decision-making; and



To be employed in a “managerial capacity” means an assignment within an organization in which the employee primarily:


  • Manages the organization, or a department, subdivision, function, or component of the organization;


  • Supervises and controls the work of other supervisory, professional, or managerial employees, or manages an essential function within the organization, or a department or subdivision of the organization;


  • If another employee or other employees are directly supervised, has the authority to hire and fire or recommend those as well as other personnel actions (such as promotion and leave authorization) or, if no other employee is directly supervised, functions at a senior level within the organizational hierarchy or with respect to the function managed; and



USCIS does not deem an applicant to be an executive or manager simply because he or she has such a title in an organization or because the applicant periodically directs the organization as the owner or sole managerial employee. The focus is on the applicant’s primary duties. In this regard, there must be sufficient staff, such as contract employees or others, to perform the day-to-day operations of the organization in order to enable the applicant to be primarily employed in an executive or managerial function.[62] See INA 101(a)(44)(A) and INA 101(a)(44)(B) for statutory definitions of the terms “managerial capacity” and “executive capacity.” See 8 CFR 204.5(j)(2), 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(B), and 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(C). See Adjudicator’s Field Manual, Chapter 22.2(i)(3)(D) – (G) for further guidance on managerial and executive capacity and the evaluation of such positions. See Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM), 9 FAM 41.54, Intracompany Transferees (Executives, Managers, and Specialists).


USCIS does not consider a person to be acting in a managerial or executive capacity merely on the basis of the number of employees that the person supervises. USCIS takes into account the reasonable needs of the organization with regard to the overall purpose and stage of development of the organization in cases where staffing levels are used as a factor in determining whether an individual is acting in a managerial or executive capacity.[63] See INA 101(a)(44)(C).


Applicable Period of Absence


Section 1059(e) benefits are available for an absence from the United States when an applicant is employed in a qualifying position and has worked directly with the Chief of Mission or the U.S. armed forces for any period of time during that absence. However, if the applicant spent part of that time abroad in employment other than the specified qualifying employment, then the applicant does not receive credit for that part of the time.


Other employment abroad, or employment as an interpreter, translator, or in a security-related position (as described above) by an entity other than the Chief of Mission or the U.S. armed forces, or under contract with them, does not provide a benefit to the applicant. Such an applicant would still be required to meet the continuous residence and physical presence requirements unless the applicant qualified for the preservation of his or her residence (through the N-470(http://www.uscis.gov/n-470) process).[64] See INA 316(b) and INA 316(c). Certain applicants who meet the requirements of INA 316(b) to preserve residence may also qualify for benefits under INA 316(c) dealing with physical presence. See Section A, Qualifying Employment Abroad [12 USCIS-PM D.5(A)]. 


4. Employed Abroad in Religious Vocation 


LPRs who go abroad temporarily for the purpose of performing the ministerial or priestly functions of such religious denomination, or of serving as a missionary, brother, nun, or sister for a religious denomination organized in the United States may treat such time abroad as continuous residence and physical presence in the United States for naturalization purposes.


LPRs must have been physically present and residing within the United States for an uninterrupted period of at least one year in order to qualify.[65] See INA 317.


B. Qualifying Military Service


Applicants with certain types of military service may be eligible for a modification or exception to the continuous residence and physical presence requirements for naturalization.


See Part I, Military Members and their Families,[66] 12 USCIS-PM I. for modifications and exceptions for applicants with certain types of military service, to include:


  • One Year of Military Service – INA 328(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10108.html);

  • Service during Hostilities – INA 329(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10163.html);

  • Service in WWII Certain Natives of Philippines – § 405 of IMMACT90; and

  • Members who Enlisted under Lodge Act – Act of June 30, 1950, 64 Stat. 316.


C. Spouse, Child, or Parent of Certain U.S. Citizens


The spouse, child, or parent of certain U.S. citizens may be eligible for a modification or exception to the continuous residence and physical presence requirements for naturalization.


See Part G, Spouses of U.S. Citizens,[67] 12 USCIS-PM G. for modifications and exceptions for spouses of certain U.S. citizens, to include:



See Part H, Children of U.S. Citizens,[69] 12 USCIS-PM H. for modifications and exceptions to the continuous residence and physical presence requirements for children of certain U.S. citizens.



These parts will also include information on modifications and exceptions to the continuous residence and physical presence requirements for surviving parents of certain U.S. citizens.


D. Other Special Classes of Applicants


The table below serves as a quick reference guide to certain continuous residence and physical presence provisions for special classes of applicants. The paragraphs that follow the table provide further guidance on each class of applicant.


Continuous Residence and Physical Presence

for Special Classes of Applicants

Applicant

Provision

Continuous Residence

Physical Presence

Citizens who lost Citizenship through Foreign Military Service

INA 327(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10096.html)

Exempt

Noncitizen Nationals

INA 325(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10083.html)

Time residing in outlying possession may count as residence and physical presence in the United States

Service on Certain U.S. Vessels

INA 330(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10233.html)

Time in service on certain U.S. vessels may count as residence and physical presence in the United States

Service Contributing to Nat’l Security

INA 316(f)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7701)

Exempt


1. Citizens who Lost U.S. Citizenship through Foreign Military Service[71] See INA 327.


Former citizens who lost citizenship through service during the Second World War in foreign armed forces not then at war with the United States can regain citizenship. The applicant must be admitted as an LPR. However, the applicant is exempt from the continuous residence and physical requirements for naturalization.[72] See 8 CFR 327.1(f).


2. Noncitizen Nationals of the United States


The time a noncitizen national of the United States spends within any of the outlying possessions of the United States counts as continuous residence and physical presence in the United States.[73] See INA 325. See 8 CFR 325.2. Unless otherwise provided under INA 301, the following persons are nationals, but not citizens of the United States at birth: (1) a person born in an outlying possession of the United States on or after the date of formal acquisition of such possession; (2) a person born outside the United States and its outlying possessions of parents both of whom are nationals, but not citizens, of the United States, and have had a residence in the United States, or one of its outlying possessions prior to the birth of such person; (3) a person of unknown parentage found in an outlying possession of the United States while under the age of five years, until shown, prior to his attaining the age of twenty- one years, not to have been born in such outlying possession; and (4) a person born outside the United States and its outlying possessions of parents one of whom is an alien, and the other a national, but not a citizen, of the United States who, prior to the birth of such person, was physically present in the United States or its outlying possessions for a period or periods totaling not less than seven years in any continuous period of ten years: during which the national parent was not outside the United States or its outlying possessions for a continuous period of more than one year, and at least five years of which were after attaining the age of fourteen years. See INA 101(a)(22) and INA 308. 


3. Service on Certain U.S. Vessels


Any time an LPR has spent in qualifying honorable service on board a vessel operated by the United States or on board a vessel whose home port is in the United States will be considered residence and physical presence within the United States.[74] See INA 330. See 8 CFR 330.1. The qualifying service must take place within five years immediately preceding the date the applicant files for naturalization.


4. Service Contributing to National Security 


The Director of Central Intelligence, the Attorney General, and the Director of USCIS may designate annually up to five persons who have “made an extraordinary contribution to the national security of the United States or to the conduct of United States intelligence activities.” Such persons are exempted from the continuous residence and physical presence requirements.[75] See INA 316(f). 


Chapter 6: Jurisdiction, Place of Residence, and Early Filing


A. Three-Month Residency Requirement (in State or Service District)


In general, an applicant for naturalization must file his or her application for naturalization with the State or Service District that has jurisdiction over his or her place of residence. The applicant must have resided in that location for at least three months prior to filing. 


The term “State” includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.[76] See INA 101(a)(36). As of November 28, 2009, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is part of the definition of United States. See Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008, Public Law 110-229. See Chapter 3, Continuous Residence, Section E, Residence in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands [12 USCIS-PM D.3(E)]. The term “Service District” is defined as the geographical area over which a USCIS office has jurisdiction.[77] See 8 CFR 316.1.


The Service District that has jurisdiction over an applicant’s application may or may not be located within the State where the applicant resides. In addition, some Service Districts may have jurisdiction over more than one State and most States contain more than one USCIS office.[78] See 8 CFR 100.4.


In cases where an applicant changes or plans to change his or her residence after filing the naturalization application, the applicant is required to report the change of address to USCIS so that the applicant’s A-file (with application) can be transferred to the appropriate office having jurisdiction over the applicant’s new place of residence.


B. Place of Residence


The applicant’s “residence” refers to the applicant’s principal, actual dwelling place in fact, without regard to intent.[79] See INA 101(a)(33). This is the same as the applicant’s actual domicile. The duration of an applicant’s residence in a particular location is measured from the moment the applicant first establishes residence in that location.[80] See 8 CFR 316.5(a).


C. Place of Residence in Certain Cases


There are special considerations regarding the place of residence for the following applicants:[81] See 8 CFR 316.5(b).


1. Military Member


Special provisions exist for applicants who are serving or have served in the U.S. armed forces but who do not qualify for naturalization on the basis of the military service for one year.[82] See INA 328. See Part I, Military Members and their Families, Chapter 2, One Year of Military Service during Peacetime (INA 328) [12 USCIS-PM I.2].


  • The service member’s place of residence may be the State or Service District where he or she is physically present for at least three months immediately prior to filing (or the examination if filed early);


  • The service member’s place of residence may be the location of the residence of his or her spouse or minor child, or both; or


  • The service member’s place of residence may be his or her home of record as declared to the U.S. armed forces at the time of enlistment and as currently reflected in the service member’s military personnel file. 


2. Spouse of Military Member (Residing Abroad)


The spouse of a U.S. armed forces member may be eligible to count the time he or she is residing (or has resided) abroad with the service member as continuous residence and physical presence in any State or district of the United States.[83] See INA 319(e). See Part I, Military Members and their Families, Chapter 9, Spouses, Children, and Surviving Family Benefits, Section B, Spouses of Military Members [12 USCIS-PM I.9(B)]. See Part G, Spouses of U.S. Citizens, Chapter 3, Spouses of U.S. Citizens Residing in the United States [12 USCIS-PM G.3]. Such a spouse may consider his or her place of residence abroad as a place of residence in any State or district in the United States.


3. Students


An applicant who is attending an educational institution in a State or Service District other than the applicant's home residence may apply for naturalization where that institution is located, or in the State of the applicant's home residence if the applicant is financially dependent upon his or her parents at the time of filing and during the naturalization process.[84] See 8 CFR 316.5(b)(2). 


4. Commuter 


A commuter must have taken up permanent residence (principal dwelling place) in the United States for the required statutory period and must meet the residency requirements to be eligible for naturalization.[85] See 8 CFR 211.5. See 8 CFR 316.5(b)(3).


5. Residence in Multiple States 


If an applicant claims residence in more than one State, the residence for purposes of naturalization will be determined by the location from which the applicant’s annual federal income tax returns have been and are being filed.[86] See 8 CFR 316.5(b)(4). 


6. Residence During Absences of Less than One Year 


An applicant's residence during any absence abroad of less than one year will continue to be the State or Service District where the applicant resided before departure. If the applicant returns to the same residence, he or she will have complied with the three-month jurisdictional residence requirement when at least three months have elapsed, including any part of the absence, from when the applicant first established that residence.[87] See 8 CFR 316.5(b)(5). 


If the applicant establishes residence in a different State or Service District from where he or she last resided, the applicant must reside three months at that new residence before applying in order to meet the three-month jurisdictional residence requirement.[88] See 8 CFR 316.2(a)(5). 


7. Noncitizen Nationals of the United States


A noncitizen national may naturalize if he or she becomes a resident of any State and is otherwise qualified.[89] See INA 325. See Chapter 5, Modifications and Exceptions to Continuous Residence and Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.5].  Noncitizen nationals will satisfy the continuous residence and physical presence requirements while residing in an outlying possession. Such applicants must reside for three months prior to filing in a State or Service District to be eligible for naturalization.


D. 90-Day Early Filing Provision (INA 334(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10276.html))


An applicant filing under the general naturalization provision may file his or her application up to 90 days before he or she would first meet the required 5-year period of continuous residence as an LPR.[90] See INA 334(a). See 8 CFR 334.2(b). Although an applicant may file early according to the 90 day early filing provision, the applicant is not eligible for naturalization until he or she has reached the required five-year period of continuous residence as an LPR.


USCIS calculates the early filing period by counting back 90 days from the day before the applicant would have first satisfied the continuous residence requirement for naturalization. For example, if the applicant would satisfy the five-year continuous residence requirement for the first time on June 10, 2010 USCIS will begin to calculate the 90-day early filing period from June 9, 2010. In such a case, the earliest that the applicant is allowed to file would be March 12, 2010 (90 calendar days earlier).


In cases where an applicant has filed early and the required three month period of residence in a State or Service District falls within the required five-year period of continuous residence, jurisdiction for filing will be based on the three-month period immediately preceding the examination on the application.[91] See 8 CFR 316.2(a)(5).


E. Expediting Applications from Certain SSI Beneficiaries


USCIS will expedite naturalization applications filed by applicants:


  • Who are within one year or less of having their Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits terminated by the Social Security Administration (SSA); and 


  • Whose naturalization application has been pending for four months or more from the date of receipt by USCIS. 


Although USCIS will prioritize processing of these applications, each applicant is still required to meet all eligibility requirements for naturalization at the time of filing. Applicants must inform USCIS of the approaching termination of benefits by INFOPASS appointment or by United States postal mail or other courier service by providing:


  • A cover letter or cover sheet to explain that SSI benefits will be terminated within one year or less and that their naturalization application has been pending for four months or more from the date of receipt by USCIS; and


  • A copy of the applicant’s most recent SSA letter indicating the termination of their SSI benefits. (The USCIS alien number must be written at the top right of the SSA letter).


Chapter 7: Attachment to the Constitution


A. Attachment to the Constitution


An applicant for naturalization must show that he or she has been and continues to be a person attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States during the statutorily prescribed period.[92] See INA 316(a). See 8 CFR 316.11. “Attachment” is a stronger term than “well disposed” and implies a depth of conviction, which would lead to active support of the Constitution.[93] See In re Shanin, 278 F. 739 (D.C. Mass. 1922).


Attachment includes both an understanding and a mental attitude including willingness to be attached to the principles of the Constitution. An applicant who is hostile to the basic form of government of the United States, or who does not believe in the principles of the Constitution, is not eligible for naturalization.[94] See Allan v. United States, 115 F.2d 804 (9th Cir. 1940). 


In order to be admitted to citizenship, naturalization applicants must take the Oath of Allegiance in a public ceremony. At that time, an applicant declares his or her attachment to the United States and its Constitution.[95] See INA 337. See 8 CFR 337.1. See Part J, Oath of Allegiance [12 USCIS-PM J]. In order to be admitted to citizenship:


  • The applicant must understand that he or she is taking the Oath freely without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion;


  • The applicant must understand that he or she is s incerely and absolutely renouncing all foreign allegiance;


  • The applicant must understand that he or she is giving true faith and allegiance to the United States, its Constitution and laws;


  • The applicant must understand that he or she is intending to make the United States his or her permanent home where he or she will fully assume residency; and


  • The applicant must understand that he or she is discharging all duties and obligations of citizenship including military and civil service when required by the law.


The applicant’s true faith and allegiance to the United States includes supporting and defending the principles of the Constitution by demonstrating an acceptance of the democratic, representational process established by the U.S. Constitution, and the willingness to obey the laws which result from that process.[96] The attachment to the Constitution and oath requirements may be modified for religious objections or waived for applicants with an inability to comprehend the oath. Prior to November 6, 2000, certain disabled applicants were precluded from naturalization because they could not personally express intent or voluntary assent to the oath requirement. However, subsequent legislation authorized USCIS to waive the attachment and the oath requirements for any individual who has a medical condition physical or developmental disability or mental impairment that makes him or her unable to understand or communicate an understanding of the meaning of the oath. See Pub. L. 106-448 (November 6, 2000). See Part J, Oath of Allegiance, Chapter 3, Oath of Allegiance Modifications and Waivers [12 USCIS-PM J.3].


B. Selective Service Registration


1. Males Required to Register 


In general, males must register with Selective Service within 30 days of their 18th birthday but not after reaching 26 years of age. The U.S. Government suspended the registration in April of 1975 and resumed it in 1980. An applicant who refused to or knowingly and willfully failed to register for Selective Service negates his disposition to the good order and happiness of the United States, attachment to the principles of the Constitution, good moral character, and willingness to bear arms on behalf of the United States.[97] See INA 316(a) and INA 337(a)(5)(A). See the Military Selective Service Act of 1940.


Applicants may register for Selective Service at their local post office, return a Selective Service registration card received by mail, or online at the Selective Service System website.[98] See www.sss.gov. Confirmation of registration may be obtained by calling (847) 688-6888 or online at www.sss.gov(http://www.sss.gov). The officer may also accept other persuasive evidence presented by an applicant as proof of registration. 


USCIS assists with the registration process by transmitting the appropriate data to the Selective Service System (SSS) for male applicants between the ages of 18 and 26 who apply for adjustment of status. After registering the eligible male, Selective Service will send an acknowledgement to the applicant that can be used as his official proof of Selective Service registration.


2. Failure to Register for Selective Service 


USCIS will deny a naturalization application when the applicant refuses to register with Selective Service or has knowingly and willfully failed to register during the statutory period.[99] Failure to register is not a permanent bar to naturalization. The officer may request for the applicant to submit a status information letter and registration acknowledgement card before concluding that he failed to register.


The status information letter will indicate whether a requirement to register existed. The applicant must show by a preponderance of the evidence that his failure to register was not a knowing or willful act.[100] See 50 U.S.C. App. 462. Failure on the part of USCIS or SSS to complete the process on behalf of the applicant, however, will not constitute a willful failure to register on the part of the applicant.


The denial notice in cases where willful failure to register is established may also show that in addition to failing to register, the applicant is not well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States. This determination depends on the applicant’s age at the time of filing the application and up until the time of the oath: 


Applicants Under 26 Years of Age


The applicant is generally ineligible. 


Applicants Between 26 and 31 Years of Age


The applicant may be ineligible for naturalization. USCIS will allow the applicant an opportunity to show that he did not knowingly or willfully fail to register, or that he was not required to do so.


Applicants Over 31 Years of Age


The applicant is eligible. This is the case even if the applicant knowingly and willfully failed to register because the applicant’s failure to register would be outside of the statutory period.


3. Males Not Required to Register 


The following classes of males are not required to register for Selective Service:



C. Draft Evaders


In general, the law prohibits draft evaders and deserters from the U.S. armed forces during wartime from naturalizing for lack of attachment to the Constitution and favorable disposition to the good order of the United States.[102] See INA 316(a)(3).  


A conviction by a court martial or a court of competent jurisdiction for a military desertion or a departure from the United States to avoid a military draft will preclude naturalization.[103] See INA 314. USCIS may obtain such information from the applicant’s testimony during the naturalization examination (interview), security checks, and from the Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service (Form N-426(http://www.uscis.gov/n-426)).[104] See Part I, Military Members and their Families [12 USCIS-PM I].


An applicant who admits to desertion during wartime, but who has not been convicted of desertion by court martial or court of competent jurisdiction may still be eligible for naturalization.[105] See State v. Symonds, 57 Me. 148 (1869). See Holt v. Holt, 59 Me. 464 (1871). See McCafferty v. Guyer, 59 Pa. 109 (1868). An applicant’s military record may list him or her as a deserter but without a final conviction.


D. Membership in Certain Organizations


The officer will review an applicant’s record and testimony during the interview on the naturalization application to determine whether he or she was ever a member of or in any way associated (either directly or indirectly) with:


  • The Communist Party;

  • Any other totalitarian party; or

  • A terrorist organization.


Current and previous membership in these organizations may indicate a lack of attachment to the Constitution and an indication that the applicant is not well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States.[106] See INA 313 and INA 316. See 8 CFR 316. Membership in these organizations may also raise issues of lawful admission, good moral character,[107] See Part F, Good Moral Character [12 USCIS-PM F]. or may even render the applicant removable.[108] See INA 237(a)(4).


The burden rests on the applicant to prove that he or she has an attachment to the Constitution and that he or she is well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States, among the other naturalization requirements. An applicant who refuses to testify or provide documentation relating to membership in such organizations has not met the burden of proof. USCIS may still deny the naturalization application under such grounds in cases where such an applicant was not removed at the end of removal proceedings.[109] See INA 313. See the Legal Decisions and Opinions of the Office of Immigration Litigation Case Summaries - No. 93-380, Price v. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, seeking review of Price v. U.S. Immigration Naturalization Service, 962 F.2d. 836 (9th Cir. 1992). 


1. Communist Party Affiliation


An applicant cannot naturalize if any of the following are true within ten years immediately preceding his or her filing for naturalization and up until the time of the Oath of Allegiance:


  • The applicant is or has been a member of or affiliated with the Communist Party or any other totalitarian party; 


  • The applicant is or has advocated communism or the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship; 


  • The applicant is or has been a member of or affiliated with an organization that advocates communism or the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship, either through its own utterance or through any written or printed matter published by such organization; 


  • The applicant is or has been a subversive, or a member of, or affiliated with, a subversive organization; 


  • The applicant is knowingly publishing or has published any subversive written or printed matter, or written or printed matter advocating communism;


  • The applicant is knowingly circulating or has circulated, or knowingly possesses or has possessed for the purpose of circulating, subversive written or printed matter, or written or printed matter advocating communism; or 


  • The applicant is or has been a member of, or affiliated with, any organization that publishes or circulates, or that possesses for the purpose of publishing or circulating, any subversive written or printed matter, or any written or printed matter advocating communism.


2. Exemptions to Communist Party Affiliation 


The burden is on the applicant to establish eligibility for an exemption. An applicant may be eligible for naturalization if he or she establishes that: 


  • The applicant’s membership or affiliation was involuntary;


  • The applicant’s membership or affiliation was without awareness of the nature or the aims of the organization, and was discontinued when the applicant became aware of the nature or aims of the organization;


  • The applicant’s membership or affiliation was terminated prior to his or her attaining the age of 16;


  • The applicant’s membership or affiliation was terminated more than 10 years prior to the filing for naturalization;


  • The applicant’s membership or affiliation was by operation of law; or


  • The applicant’s membership or affiliation was necessary for purposes of obtaining employment, food rations, or other essentials of living.[110] See INA 313(d).


Even if participating without awareness of the nature or the aims of the organization, the applicant’s participation must have been minimal in nature. The applicant must also demonstrate that membership in the covered organization was necessary to obtain the essentials of living like food, shelter, clothing, employment, and an education, which were routinely available to the rest of the population. 


For purposes of this exemption, higher education qualifies as an essential of living only if the applicant can establish the existence of special circumstances which convert the need for higher education into a need as basic as the need for food or employment, and that he or she participated only to the minimal extent necessary to receive the essentials of living. 


However, unless the applicant can show special circumstances that establish a need for higher education as basic as the need for food or employment, membership to obtain a college education is not excusable for obtaining an essential of living.[111] See Langhammer v. Hamilton, 194 F. Supp. 854, 857 (1961).


3. Nazi Party Affiliation 


Applicants who were affiliated with the Nazi Government of Germany or any government occupied by or allied with the Nazi government of Germany, either directly or indirectly, are ineligible for admission into the United States and permanently barred from naturalization.[112] See INA 212(a)(3)(E). The applicant is responsible for providing any evidence or documentation to support a claim that he or she is not ineligible for naturalization based on involvement in the Nazi Party.


4. Persecution and Genocide 


An applicant who has engaged in persecution or genocide is permanently barred from naturalization because he or she is precluded from establishing good moral character.[113] See INA 101(a)(42), INA 101(f), and INA 208(b)(2)(A)(i). See Part F, Good Moral Character, Chapter 4, Permanent Bars to GMC, Section C, Persecution, Genocide, Torture, or Severe Violations of Religious Freedom [12 USCIS-PM F.4(C)]. Additionally, an applicant who engaged in persecution or genocide prior to admission as an LPR would have been inadmissible. Such an applicant would not have lawfully acquired LPR status in accordance with all applicable provisions and would be ineligible for naturalization.[114] See INA 318. See Chapter 2, LPR Admission for Naturalization [12 USCIS-PM D.2]. Such persons may also be deportable.[115] See INA 212(a)(3)(E). 


5. Membership or Affiliation with Terrorist Organizations


Information concerning an applicant’s membership in a terrorist organization implicates national security issues. Such information is important in determining the applicant’s eligibility in terms of the good moral character (GMC) and attachment requirements.


Chapter 8: Educational Requirements[116] See Part E, English and Civics Testing and Exceptions [12 USCIS-PM E] and Part B, Naturalization Examination [12 USCIS-PM B].


In general, applicants for naturalization must demonstrate an understanding of the English language, including an ability to read, write, and speak words in ordinary usage. Applicants must also demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the history and principles and form of government of the United States (civics). These are the English and civics requirements for naturalization.


An applicant may be eligible for an exception to the English requirements if he or she is a certain age and has been an LPR for a certain period of time. In addition, an applicant who has a physical or developmental disability or mental impairment may be eligible for a medical exception of both the English and civics requirements.[117] See INA 312 and 8 CFR 312. See Part E, English and Civics Testing and Exceptions [12 USCIS-PM E].


Chapter 9: Good Moral Character[118] See Part F, Good Moral Character [12 USCIS-PM F], for guidance on the GMC requirement for naturalization.


One of the requirements for naturalization is good moral character (GMC). An applicant for naturalization must show that he or she has been, and continues to be, a person of good moral character. In general, the applicant must show GMC during the five-year period immediately preceding his or her application for naturalization and up to the time of the Oath of Allegiance. Conduct prior to the five-year period may also impact whether the applicant meets the requirement.[119] See Part F, Good Moral Character [12 USCIS-PM F].



Footnotes


1. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(23)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-835).

2. [^] 

 See INA 316(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html). See relevant parts in Volume 12 [12 USCIS-PM(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12.html)] for other naturalization provisions and requirements. 

3. [^] 

 See INA 316(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html).

4. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(20)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-825) and INA 334(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10276.html#0-0-0-7961). See 8 CFR 316.2(a)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-30975.html#0-0-0-19603)

5. [^] 

 See INA 318(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9928.html). See Matter of Koloamatangi, 23 I & N Dec 548, 550 (2003). See Estrada-Ramos v. Holder611 F.3d 318, (7th Cir. 2010). See Mejia-Orellana v. Gonzales, 502 F.3d 13 (1st Cir 2007). See De La Rosa v DHS, 489 F.3d 551 (2nd Cir 2007). See Savoury v. U.S. Attorney General, 449 F.3d 1307 (11th Cir 2006). See Arellano-Garcia v. Gonzales, 429 F.3d 1183 (8th Cir 2005). See Monet v. INS, 791 F.2d 752 (9th Cir. 1986). See Matter of Longstaff, 716 F.2d 1439, 1441 (5th Cir. 1983).

6. [^] 

 See Chapter 3, Continuous Residence [12 USCIS-PM D.3(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter3.html)].

7. [^] 

 See Chapter 6, Jurisdiction, Place of Residence, and Early Filing [12 USCIS-PM D.6(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter6.html)].

8. [^] 

 See INA 316(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7681).

9. [^] 

 See INA 216(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-4223.html). 

10. [^] 

 See INA 216(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-4223.html) and INA 318(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9928.html)

11. [^] 

 See Part G, Spouses of U.S. Citizens [12 USCIS-PM G(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartG.html)]; Part H, Children of U.S. Citizens [12 USCIS-PM H(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartH.html)]; and Part I, Military Members and their Families [12 USCIS-PM I(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartI.html)], for special circumstances under which where the applicant may not be required to have an approved petition to remove conditions prior naturalization.

12. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(29)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-929) and INA 308(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9761.html).

13. [^] 

 See INA 325(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10083.html). See 8 CFR 325.2(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-31940/0-0-0-31947.html#0-0-0-20031)Non-citizen nationals may satisfy the residence and physical presence requirements through their residence and presence within any of the outlying possessions of the United States.

14. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(20)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-825).

15. [^] 

 See Part I, Military Members and their FamiliesChapter 3, Military Service during Hostilities (INA 329(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10163.html)) [12 USCIS-PM I.3(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartI-Chapter3.html)].

16. [^] 

 See INA 264(e)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-8289.html#0-0-0-6453).

17. [^] 

 See Section A, LPR at Time of Filing and Naturalization [12 USCIS-PM D.2(A)(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter2.html#S-A)].

18. [^] 

 See INA 316(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7681).

19. [^] 

 See INA 316(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7681). See Chapter 6, Jurisdiction, Place of Residence, and Early Filing [12 USCIS-PM D.6(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter6.html)].

20. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19633).

21. [^] 

 See Chapter 5, Modifications and Exceptions to Continuous Residence and Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.5(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter5.html)].

22. [^] 

 See Part I, Military Members and their Families [12 USCIS-PM I(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartI.html)].

23. [^] 

 See Chapter 4, Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.4(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter4.html)].

24. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(c)(3)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19681) and 8 CFR 316.5(c)(4)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19683).

25. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(c)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19679).

26. [^] 

 See INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689).

27. [^] 

 See INA 336(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10299.html) (Hearings on Denials of Applications for Naturalization).

28. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(c)(1)(i)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19665)

29. [^] 

 See INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689).

30. [^] 

 See Section D, Preserving Residence for Naturalization (Form N-470) [12 USCIS-PM D.3(D)(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter3.html#S-D)].

31. [^] 

 See INA 316(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7681).

32. [^] 

 See INA 319(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9934.html#0-0-0-7715).

33. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(c)(1)(ii)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19675).

34. [^] 

 See Chapter 5, Modifications and Exceptions to Continuous Residence and Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.5(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter5.html)], for classes of applicants eligible to preserve residence.

35. [^] 

 The applicant may also need to apply for a reentry permit to be permitted to enter the United States.

36. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(d)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19677).

37. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.20(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31192.html#0-0-0-19595). See www.uscis.gov/AIR(http://www.uscis.gov/AIR) for lists of recognized organizations.

38. [^] 

 See INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689). See 8 CFR 316.20(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31192.html#0-0-0-19595).

39. [^] 

 See INA 316(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7695). See Chapter 5, Modifications and Exceptions to Continuous Residence and Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.5(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter5.html)].

40. [^] 

 See Matter of Huang, 19 I&N Dec. 749 (BIA 1988). In removal proceedings, DHS bears the burden of proving abandonment by clear and convincing evidence. But if the probative evidence is sufficient to meet that standard of proof, approval of the application to preserve residence, by itself, would not preclude a finding of abandonment. 

41. [^] 

 See INA 212(a)(7)(A)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-2006.html#0-0-0-2297)

42. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 211.1(a)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-15844/0-0-0-15852.html#0-0-0-12057)

43. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 223.2(b)(1)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-22260/0-0-0-22275.html#0-0-0-14843)

44. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(36)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-943) and INA 101(a)(38)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-951). See 48 U.S.C. 1806(a)(http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:48%20section:1806%20edition:prelim)%20OR%20(granuleid:USC-prelim-title48-section1806)&f=treesort&edition=prelim&num=0&jumpTo=true) and 48 U.S.C. 1806(f)(http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:48%20section:1806%20edition:prelim)%20OR%20(granuleid:USC-prelim-title48-section1806)&f=treesort&edition=prelim&num=0&jumpTo=true). See section 705(b) of the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008 (CNRA), Pub. L.110-229 (48 U.S.C. 1806(http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:48%20section:1806%20edition:prelim)%20OR%20(granuleid:USC-prelim-title48-section1806)&f=treesort&edition=prelim&num=0&jumpTo=true) note).

45. [^] 

 See section 705(c) of the CNRA (48 U.S.C. 1806(http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:48%20section:1806%20edition:prelim)%20OR%20(granuleid:USC-prelim-title48-section1806)&f=treesort&edition=prelim&num=0&jumpTo=true) note). See Eche v. Holder, 694 F.3d 1026 (9th Cir. 2012). 

46. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 211.5(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-15844/0-0-0-15897.html#0-0-0-12049).

47. [^] 

 See INA 316(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7681). See 8 CFR 316.2(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-30975.html#0-0-0-19573)

48. [^] 

 See Chapter 3, Continuous Residence [12 USCIS-PM D.3(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter3.html)].

49. [^] 

 USCIS will only count residence in the CNMI on or after November 28, 2009, as time counted for physical presence within the United States for naturalization purposes.

50. [^] 

 See INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689) and INA 316(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7695).

51. [^] 

 See INA 316(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7695).

52. [^] 

 USCIS has adopted the AAO decision in Matter of Chawathe. The decision states that under INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689), a publicly held corporation may be deemed an “American firm or corporation” if the applicant establishes that the corporation is both incorporated and trades its stock exclusively on U.S. Stock Exchange markets. If the applicant is unable to meet this qualification, then he or she must meet the requirements under Matter of Warrach, 17 I & N Dec 285, 286-287 (Reg. Comm. 1979). USCIS then determines the nationality of the corporation by reviewing whether more than 50 percent is owned by U.S. citizens. The applicant must establish this by a preponderance of the evidence.

53. [^] 

 See INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689) and INA 316(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7695). See 8 CFR 316.20(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31192.html#0-0-0-19595). See www.uscis.gov/AIR(http://www.uscis.gov/AIR) for a list of recognized organizations.

54. [^] 

 See INA 316(b)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7693). See 8 CFR 316.5(d)(1)(ii)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19689).

55. [^] 

 See INA 319(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9934.html#0-0-0-7733). See 8 CFR 319.4(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-31517/0-0-0-31606.html#0-0-0-19803).

56. [^] 

 See section 1059(e) of the National Defense Authorization Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109-163 [8 U.S.C. 1101 Note(http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:8%20section:1101%20edition:prelim)%20OR%20(granuleid:USC-prelim-title8-section1101)&f=treesort&edition=prelim&num=0&jumpTo=true)] (January 6, 2006), as amended. The subsection ‘(e)’ provision relating to naturalization was added to section 1059 on June 15, 2007. The amendments state that certain persons do not break the continuity of their residence in the United States for naturalization purposes during time abroad if employed abroad by, or under contract with, the Chief of Mission (Department of State) or by the U.S. armed forces as an interpreter or translator in Iraq or Afghanistan. See Pub. L. 110-36 (June 15, 2007). On December 28, 2012, section 1059(e) was further amended by adding certain security-related positions (in an executive or managerial capacity), in addition to interpreters and translators, as types of qualifying employment. The amendments also removed the geographical limitation of qualifying employment within Iraq or Afghanistan. See Pub. L. 112-227 (December 28, 2012).

57. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(44)(A)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-1055) and INA 101(a)(44)(B)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-1065) for statutory definitions of the terms “managerial capacity” and “executive capacity.” See 8 CFR 204.5(j)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-12632/0-0-0-13411.html#0-0-0-10745)8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(B)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-17197/0-0-0-18918.html#0-0-0-13667), and 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(C)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-17197/0-0-0-18918.html#0-0-0-13669). See Adjudicator’s Field Manual, Chapter 22.2(i)(3)(D) – (G)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/AFM/HTML/AFM/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-6330/0-0-0-6423.html#0-0-0-1748) for further guidance on managerial and executive capacity and the evaluation of such positions.

58. [^] 

 Public Law 110-36 added section 1059(e) to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, which added the interpreter and translator provisions.

59. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(44)(A)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-1055) and INA 101(a)(44)(B)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-1065) for statutory definitions of the terms “managerial capacity” and “executive capacity.” See 8 CFR 204.5(j)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-12632/0-0-0-13411.html#0-0-0-10745)8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(B)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-17197/0-0-0-18918.html#0-0-0-13667), and 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(C)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-17197/0-0-0-18918.html#0-0-0-13669). See Adjudicator’s Field Manual, Chapter 22.2(i)(3)(D) – (G)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/AFM/HTML/AFM/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-6330/0-0-0-6423.html#0-0-0-1748) for further guidance on managerial and executive capacity and the evaluation of such positions. See Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM), 9 FAM 41.54, Intracompany Transferees (Executives, Managers, and Specialists)(http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/87228.pdf).

60. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(44)(B)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-1065). See 8 CFR 204.5(j)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-12632/0-0-0-13411.html#0-0-0-10745). See 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(C)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-17197/0-0-0-18918.html#0-0-0-13669).

61. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(44)(A)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-1055). See 8 CFR 204.5(j)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-12632/0-0-0-13411.html#0-0-0-10745). See 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(B)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-17197/0-0-0-18918.html#0-0-0-13667).

62. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(44)(A)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-1055) and INA 101(a)(44)(B)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-1065) for statutory definitions of the terms “managerial capacity” and “executive capacity.” See 8 CFR 204.5(j)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-12632/0-0-0-13411.html#0-0-0-10745)8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(B)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-17197/0-0-0-18918.html#0-0-0-13667), and 8 CFR 214.2(l)(1)(ii)(C)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-17197/0-0-0-18918.html#0-0-0-13669). See Adjudicator’s Field Manual, Chapter 22.2(i)(3)(D) – (G)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/AFM/HTML/AFM/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-6330/0-0-0-6423.html#0-0-0-1748) for further guidance on managerial and executive capacity and the evaluation of such positions. See Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM), 9 FAM 41.54, Intracompany Transferees (Executives, Managers, and Specialists)(http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/87228.pdf).

63. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(44)(C)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-1075).

64. [^] 

 See INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689) and INA 316(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7695). Certain applicants who meet the requirements of INA 316(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7689) to preserve residence may also qualify for benefits under INA 316(c)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7695) dealing with physical presence. See Section A, Qualifying Employment Abroad [12 USCIS-PM D.5(A)(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter5.html#S-A)].

65. [^] 

 See INA 317(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9918.html).

66. [^] 

 12 USCIS-PM I(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartI.html).

67. [^] 

 12 USCIS-PM G(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartG.html).

68. [^] 

 See Section 305 of the Intelligence Authorization Act of 1997, Pub. L. 204-293 (October 11, 1996).

69. [^] 

 12 USCIS-PM H(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartH.html).

70. [^] 

 See Section 305 of the Intelligence Authorization Act of 1997, Pub. L. 204-293 (October 11, 1996).

71. [^] 

 See INA 327(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10096.html).

72. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 327.1(f)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-31974/0-0-0-31979.html#0-0-0-20071).

73. [^] 

 See INA 325(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10083.html). See 8 CFR 325.2(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-31940/0-0-0-31947.html#0-0-0-20031). Unless otherwise provided under INA 301(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9696.html), the following persons are nationals, but not citizens of the United States at birth: (1) a person born in an outlying possession of the United States on or after the date of formal acquisition of such possession; (2) a person born outside the United States and its outlying possessions of parents both of whom are nationals, but not citizens, of the United States, and have had a residence in the United States, or one of its outlying possessions prior to the birth of such person; (3) a person of unknown parentage found in an outlying possession of the United States while under the age of five years, until shown, prior to his attaining the age of twenty- one years, not to have been born in such outlying possession; and (4) a person born outside the United States and its outlying possessions of parents one of whom is an alien, and the other a national, but not a citizen, of the United States who, prior to the birth of such person, was physically present in the United States or its outlying possessions for a period or periods totaling not less than seven years in any continuous period of ten years: during which the national parent was not outside the United States or its outlying possessions for a continuous period of more than one year, and at least five years of which were after attaining the age of fourteen years. See INA 101(a)(22)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-829) and INA 308(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9761.html)

74. [^] 

 See INA 330(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10233.html). See 8 CFR 330.1(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-32166/0-0-0-32171.html#0-0-0-20185).

75. [^] 

 See INA 316(f)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7701).

76. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(36)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-943). As of November 28, 2009, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is part of the definition of United States. See Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008, Public Law 110-229. See Chapter 3, Continuous Residence, Section E, Residence in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands [12 USCIS-PM D.3(E)(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter3.html#S-E)].

77. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.1(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-30966.html#0-0-0-19571).

78. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 100.4(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-11374/0-0-0-11398.html#0-0-0-9157).

79. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(33)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-937). This is the same as the applicant’s actual domicile.

80. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19633).

81. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19635).

82. [^] 

 See INA 328(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10108.html). See Part I, Military Members and their FamiliesChapter 2, One Year of Military Service during Peacetime (INA 328) [12 USCIS-PM I.2(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartI-Chapter2.html)].

83. [^] 

 See INA 319(e)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9934.html#0-0-0-7751). See Part I, Military Members and their FamiliesChapter 9, Spouses, Children, and Surviving Family BenefitsSection B, Spouses of Military Members [12 USCIS-PM I.9(B)(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartI-Chapter9.html#S-B)]. See Part G, Spouses of U.S. CitizensChapter 3, Spouses of U.S. Citizens Residing in the United States [12 USCIS-PM G.3(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartG-Chapter3.html)].

84. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(b)(2)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19645).

85. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 211.5(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-15844/0-0-0-15897.html#0-0-0-12049). See 8 CFR 316.5(b)(3)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19651).

86. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(b)(4)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19653).

87. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.5(b)(5)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31016.html#0-0-0-19655).

88. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.2(a)(5)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-30975.html#0-0-0-19609).

89. [^] 

 See INA 325(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10083.html). See Chapter 5, Modifications and Exceptions to Continuous Residence and Physical Presence [12 USCIS-PM D.5(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter5.html)]. 

90. [^] 

 See INA 334(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10276.html#0-0-0-7959). See 8 CFR 334.2(b)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-32314/0-0-0-32323.html#0-0-0-20303).

91. [^] 

 See 8 CFR 316.2(a)(5)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-30975.html#0-0-0-19609).

92. [^] 

 See INA 316(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7681). See 8 CFR 316.11(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-31153.html#0-0-0-19585).

93. [^] 

 See In re Shanin, 278 F. 739 (D.C. Mass. 1922).

94. [^] 

 See Allan v. United States, 115 F.2d 804 (9th Cir. 1940).

95. [^] 

 See INA 337(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10309.html). See 8 CFR 337.1(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-32547/0-0-0-32553.html#0-0-0-20447)See Part J, Oath of Allegiance [12 USCIS-PM J(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartJ.html)].

96. [^] 

 The attachment to the Constitution and oath requirements may be modified for religious objections or waived for applicants with an inability to comprehend the oath. Prior to November 6, 2000, certain disabled applicants were precluded from naturalization because they could not personally express intent or voluntary assent to the oath requirement. However, subsequent legislation authorized USCIS to waive the attachment and the oath requirements for any individual who has a medical condition physical or developmental disability or mental impairment that makes him or her unable to understand or communicate an understanding of the meaning of the oath. See Pub. L. 106-448 (November 6, 2000). See Part J, Oath of Allegiance, Chapter 3, Oath of Allegiance Modifications and Waivers [12 USCIS-PM J.3(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartJ-Chapter3.html)].

97. [^] 

 See INA 316(a)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7681) and INA 337(a)(5)(A)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-10309.html#0-0-0-7583). See the Military Selective Service Act of 1940.

98. [^] 

 See www.sss.gov(http://www.sss.gov/default.htm).

99. [^] 

 Failure to register is not a permanent bar to naturalization.

100. [^] 

 See 50 U.S.C. App. 462.

101. [^] 

 See Proc. No. 4771 of July 2, 1980 1-101, 94 Stat. 3775 (1980). See 50 U.S.C. App. 456(a). See Sec. 3(a) of the Military Selective Service Act [50 U.S.C. App. 453(a)].

102. [^] 

 See INA 316(a)(3)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html#0-0-0-7687). 

103. [^] 

 See INA 314(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9883.html).

104. [^] 

 See Part I, Military Members and their Families [12 USCIS-PM I(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartI.html)].

105. [^] 

 See State v. Symonds, 57 Me. 148 (1869). See Holt v. Holt, 59 Me. 464 (1871). See McCafferty v. Guyer, 59 Pa. 109 (1868).

106. [^] 

 See INA 313(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9847.html) and INA 316(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9898.html). See 8 CFR 316(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30960/0-0-0-30966.html#0-0-0-19571).

107. [^] 

 See Part F, Good Moral Character [12 USCIS-PM F(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartF.html)].

108. [^] 

 See INA 237(a)(4)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-5684.html#0-0-0-4575).

109. [^] 

 See INA 313(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9847.html). See the Legal Decisions and Opinions of the Office of Immigration Litigation Case Summaries - No. 93-380, Price v. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, seeking review of Price v. U.S. Immigration Naturalization Service, 962 F.2d. 836 (9th Cir. 1992).

110. [^] 

 See INA 313(d)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9847.html#0-0-0-7663).

111. [^] 

 See Langhammer v. Hamilton, 194 F. Supp. 854, 857 (1961).

112. [^] 

 See INA 212(a)(3)(E)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-2006.html#0-0-0-2471).

113. [^] 

 See INA 101(a)(42)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-195.html#0-0-0-959)INA 101(f)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-101/0-0-0-434.html#0-0-0-1191), and INA 208(b)(2)(A)(i)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-1687.html#0-0-0-1985). See Part F, Good Moral CharacterChapter 4, Permanent Bars to GMCSection C, Persecution, Genocide, Torture, or Severe Violations of Religious Freedom [12 USCIS-PM F.4(C)(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartF-Chapter4.html#S-C)].

114. [^] 

 See INA 318(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9928.html). See Chapter 2, LPR Admission for Naturalization [12 USCIS-PM D.2(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartD-Chapter2.html)].

115. [^] 

 See INA 212(a)(3)(E)(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-2006.html#0-0-0-2471).

116. [^] 

 See Part E, English and Civics Testing and Exceptions [12 USCIS-PM E(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartE.html)] and Part B, Naturalization Examination [12 USCIS-PM B(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartB.html)].

117. [^] 

 See INA 312(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-9833.html) and 8 CFR 312(http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-11261/0-0-0-30674.html#0-0-0-8973a). See Part E, English and Civics Testing and Exceptions [12 USCIS-PM E(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartE.html)].

118. [^] 

 See Part F, Good Moral Character [12 USCIS-PM F(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartF.html)], for guidance on the GMC requirement for naturalization.

119. [^] 

 See Part F, Good Moral Character [12 USCIS-PM F(http://www.uscis.gov/policymanual/HTML/PolicyManual-Volume12-PartF.html)].