A. Purpose

Naturalization is the conferring of U.S. citizenship after birth by any means whatsoever. [1] See INA 101(a)(23). There are various ways a foreign citizen or national may become a U.S. citizen through the process of naturalization. This chapter addresses the general naturalization requirements. [2] See INA 316. See relevant parts in Volume 12 [12 USCIS-PM] for other naturalization provisions and requirements.

The applicant has the burden of establishing by a preponderance of the evidence that he or she meets the requirements for naturalization.

B. General Eligibility Requirements

The following are the general naturalization requirements that an applicant must meet in order to become a U.S. citizen: [3] See INA 316.

General Eligibility Requirements for Naturalization

The applicant must be age 18 or older at the time of filing for naturalization

The applicant must be a lawful permanent resident (LPR) for at least five years before being eligible for naturalization

The applicant must have continuous residence in the United States as an LPR for at least five years immediately preceding the date of filing the application and up to the time of admission to citizenship

The applicant must be physically present in the United States for at least 30 months out of the five years immediately preceding the date of filing the application

The applicant must have lived within the state or USCIS district with jurisdiction over the applicant’s place of residence for at least three months prior to the date of filing

The applicant must demonstrate good moral character for five years prior to filing for naturalization, and during the period leading up to the administration of the Oath of Allegiance

The applicant must have an attachment to the principles of the U.S. Constitution and be well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States during all relevant periods under the law

The applicant must be able to read, write, and speak and understand English and have knowledge and an understanding of U.S. history and government

C. Legal Authorities

INA 312; 8 CFR 312 – Educational requirements for naturalization

INA 316; 8 CFR 316 – General requirements for naturalization

INA 318 – Prerequisite to naturalization, burden of proof