Update on Ramos v. Nielsen
Impact of Ramos v. Nielsen Court Order Stopping TPS Terminations
In its Oct. 3, 2018, order, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California enjoined the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) from implementing or enforcing the determinations to terminate Temporary Protected Status (TPS) for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador while the case continued its way through the legal system. As a result, DHS may not terminate TPS for these countries while the order remains in effect. The order also requires DHS to continue the validity of documentation showing lawful status and work authorization for affected, eligible TPS beneficiaries from those countries. On Oct. 31, 2018, DHS published a Federal Register Notice (FRN), Continuation of Documentation for Beneficiaries of Temporary Protected Status Designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador (83 FR 54764). On March 1, 2019, DHS published a second FRN (FR 2019-03783).
Beneficiaries under the TPS designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador will retain their TPS while the preliminary injunction remains in effect, provided that an individual’s TPS is not withdrawn under INA section 244(c)(3) or 8 CFR 244.14 because of individual ineligibility.
The preliminary injunction is currently in effect. As a result of the Oct 3, 2018, preliminary injunction, TPS designations of Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador currently remain in effect.
To comply with the court’s injunction, on March 1, 2019, DHS published a second FRN that automatically extended through Jan. 2, 2020, the following documents described in the notice: Employment Authorization Documents (EADs); Forms I-797, Notice of Action (Approval Notice); and Forms I-94, Arrival/Departure Record, (collectively, “TPS-related documents”) for eligible, affected beneficiaries of TPS for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador.
The government has filed its appeal of the preliminary injunction to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. However, TPS beneficiaries will maintain their status during the appeal process provided they continue to meet all the individual requirements for TPS eligibility found in INA section 244(c) and 8 CFR 244, as well as in the instructions for Form I-821, Application for Temporary Protected Status. These requirements, including the most recent TPS re-registration requirements for beneficiaries under each country’s designation, are also available on the USCIS TPS web page and under the country-specific TPS web pages. For questions about travel for TPS beneficiaries, please see the TPS Travel page.
In Case of Reversal
If the court reverses the preliminary injunction and that decision is final, the terminations of the TPS designations for these four countries will take effect, unless the final court order places other limitations on the terminations. If one or more of the termination decisions can take effect, DHS will allow for an orderly transition period of at least 120 days from the final ruling lifting the injunction regarding the affected TPS country or countries before implementing and enforcing the TPS termination determinations.
For legal reasons, the 120-day period will not start automatically if there is a decision reversing the preliminary injunction. USCIS will inform TPS beneficiaries when the 120-day transition period will begin. During the transition period, current TPS beneficiaries who do not have another lawful immigration status or authorization to remain in the United States will have to leave the United States, or they will be subject to removal.
Demonstrating Temporary Protected Status
As evidence of valid TPS, eligible beneficiaries under the TPS designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador may show their most recently issued TPS-related documents bearing the end validity date of April 2, 2019. If they do not possess either of those documents, they may show their TPS-related documents, which have been specified in the March 1, 2019, FRN as having been automatically extended through Jan. 2, 2020, along with that FRN.
DHS automatically extended through Jan. 2, 2020, the validity periods of the following Forms I‑94 and Forms I-797, Notice of Action (Approval Notice), previously issued to eligible beneficiaries granted TPS under the designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador.These automatic extensions are not contingent on any requirement that the eligible TPS beneficiary filed for TPS re-registration during the most recent registration period for the applicable country. Rather, all eligible beneficiaries whose documents bear the validity dates listed below are covered by the automatic extensions.
|Country||Beginning date of validity:||End date of validity:|
|Sudan||May 3, 2016||Nov. 2, 2017|
|Nov. 3, 2017||Nov. 2, 2018|
|Nicaragua||July 6, 2016||Jan. 5, 2018|
|Jan 6, 2018||Jan. 5, 2019|
|Haiti||Jan. 23, 2016||July 22, 2017|
|July 23, 2017||July 22, 2018|
|Jan. 23, 2018||July 22, 2019|
|El Salvador||Sept. 10, 2016||Mar. 9, 2018|
|Mar. 10, 2018||Sept. 9, 2019|
As stated in the March 1, 2019, FRN, if the Ramos preliminary injunction continues in effect beyond Jan. 2, 2020, DHS will publish a subsequent notice no later than Dec. 2, 2019, that will either automatically extend for nine additional months the TPS-related documents of eligible TPS beneficiaries from Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador, or provide appropriate procedures for obtaining renewed TPS documentation for all affected eligible beneficiaries under the TPS designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador. DHS will continue publishing similar notices in nine-month intervals, if needed.
Current End Date
TPS beneficiaries under the TPS designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador will maintain valid TPS in the United States as long as the Ramos preliminary injunction, or any superseding court order, enjoins DHS from implementing and enforcing the TPS termination determinations, provided that each individual TPS beneficiary under these designations maintains his or her individual eligibility for TPS. Some TPS beneficiaries may also have other valid immigration status or authorization to remain in the United States that may continue once TPS for their country ends. If a court order permits the termination of TPS for any country, USCIS will issue an FRN, if warranted, and update its website to inform beneficiaries of the termination date and any applicable orderly transition period.
Current beneficiaries under the TPS designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador do not need to re-register to maintain TPS at this time, provided that they properly re-registered for TPS during one of the re-registration periods for their country listed below. If you properly re-registered during the following re-registration periods for your country, then you do not need to submit new biometrics, unless USCIS specifically sent you a notice informing you to attend a biometrics collection appointment.
Oct. 11, 2017 - Dec. 11, 2017Jan. 25, 2016 – March 25, 2016
Dec. 15, 2017 - Feb. 13, 2018May 16, 2016 – July 15, 2016
Jan. 18, 2018 - March 19, 2018
May 24, 2017 - July 24, 2017Aug. 25, 2015 – Oct. 26, 2015
Jan. 18, 2018 - March 19, 2018
Jul. 8, 2016- Sept. 6, 2016
Beneficiaries who did not re-register during the last period may still file Form I-821, Application for Temporary Protected Status, but must demonstrate “good cause” for failing to re-register on time, as required by law. See INA, section 244(c)(3)(C). This includes beneficiaries under TPS Haiti who did not re-register after the May 2017 six-month extension of Haiti’s designation.
Late re-registrants must submit a letter describing all of their reasons for failing to file on time in accordance with the most recently announced re-registration procedures in the FRN for their TPS-designated country.
If you re-registered outside of the re-registration period because DHS announced the termination of TPS for your country, you should explain how that announcement affected you, including how the termination decisions impacted your failure to re-register. USCIS may consider this explanation for purposes of meeting the “good cause” exception for failing to re-register on time. However, if the announcement of the TPS termination did not cause you to file late, you should not include it as a reason. Applicants must be truthful in explaining their reasons.
TPS beneficiaries who did not file for re-registration under the most recently announced re-registration procedures for their country must submit biometrics when they file a late re-registration application if they are age 14 or older. USCIS will send the individual a scheduling notice for biometrics collection, if required. USCIS may also send a separate biometrics scheduling notice to a TPS beneficiary who has properly re-registered, but who later filed a Form I-765, Application for Employment Authorization, for an EAD.
Employment Authorization Documents
In the FRN (PDF) published on March 1, 2019, DHS announced the automatic extension of EADs for TPS beneficiaries under the designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador through Jan. 2, 2020, with the category codes “A-12” or “C-19” and one of the expiration dates shown below:
TPS beneficiaries with EADs that are auto-extended do not need to apply for a new EAD, but they may if they choose to do so. Additionally, TPS beneficiaries from all four countries who have EAD and re-registration applications pending will receive an EAD with a validity date ending Jan. 2, 2020, if USCIS approves their re-registration and EAD applications.
If DHS publishes a subsequent Federal Register notice before Jan. 2, 2020, that FRN will either extend TPS-related documents for an additional nine months from Jan. 2, 2020, or provide appropriate procedures for obtaining renewed TPS documentation for all affected eligible beneficiaries under the TPS designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, and El Salvador.
Any eligible beneficiary under the TPS designations for Sudan, Nicaragua, Haiti, or El Salvador who does not possess an EAD that is automatically extended in the FRN, or who wishes to apply for a new EAD despite having an older EAD that is automatically extended under the FRN, may file Form I-765 with the appropriate fee (or fee waiver request). If USCIS approves the application, we will issue an EAD with a Jan. 2, 2020, expiration date.
TPS beneficiaries may be eligible for a fee waiver under 8 CFR 103.7(c). If you believe you are eligible for a fee waiver, complete Form I-912, Request for Fee Waiver, or submit a written request, and submit it and any required evidence of your inability to pay the filing fees with your Form I-765.
Establishing Employment Eligibility
When completing Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification, as evidence of employment eligibility and identity, TPS beneficiaries may provide their employers with their unexpired EADs, facially expired EADs with individual notices that auto-extend those EADs, or facially expired EADs that are specified in the March 1, 2019, FRN that have been auto-extended. Employees with a facially expired EAD that has been auto-extended may also use a copy of the FRN to show the new EAD expiration date. As also noted in the FRN and on the USCIS I-9 Central web page, an individual may satisfy Form I-9 requirements for employment eligibility verification with any of the types of documents, or combination of documents, described on Form I-9.
Form I-9 is mandatory for all employment in the United States, but its requirements do not apply until an employer actually hires an individual. Employees may present any documentation from the Form I-9 Lists of Acceptable Documents to their employer to show identity and employment eligibility. For purposes of Form I-9, an unexpired EAD or an EAD with a validity period that is auto-extended by the FRN or the individual notice are acceptable to prove both identity and eligibility to work.
Employers can learn more about completing Form I-9 by visiting I-9 Central or calling the I-9 Contact Center:
- For Employers: 888-464-4218
- For Employees: 888-897-7781
- TTY: 877-875-6028
Discrimination in Employment Verification
Employees can report an employer who rejects acceptable documents for I-9 purposes or one who refuses to accept an auto-extended EAD, and refer any discrimination-related questions, to the Immigrant and Employee Rights Section in the Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division:
- For Employees: 800-255-7688
- For Employers: 800-255-8155
- TTY: 202-616-5525 or 800-237-2515
Demonstrating Status to State Agencies
TPS beneficiaries who need to demonstrate their continued lawful status to obtain a driver’s license or other benefit to a state or local agency that uses USCIS’ SAVE Program must have alien or I-94 numbers. These numbers can be found on various immigration documents beneficiaries may have received regarding their TPS.
DHS issues the following documents that satisfy this requirement:
- Form I-797, Notice of Action, approval notice for I-821, Application for Temporary Protected Status, has an alien number;
- Form I-766, Employment Authorization Document (EAD). EADs issued to TPS recipients will indicate a category of A12 or C19 and have an alien number;
- Form I-512, Authorization for Parole of an Alien into the United States, has an alien number. This form is issued to TPS beneficiaries who request travel authorization and who are allowed to travel outside the U.S. and return if authorized at the port of entry by Customs and Border Protection; and
- Form I-94 Arrival/Departure Record, has an I-94 number.
Beneficiaries may also have a final order from the Executive Office of Immigration Review granting TPS that may have either an alien or I-94 number.
For further information, see our web page on SAVE for Benefit Applicants.
If DHS has issued an FRN announcing the automatic extension of certain TPS-related documents, SAVE advises TPS beneficiaries to show the state or local agency a copy of the FRN documenting such extension with their most recently-issued immigration document. If you have an individual notice that automatically extends your TPS-related EAD, you may also show that notice and your EAD.
While SAVE can verify when an individual has TPS, each agency’s procedures govern whether they will accept an auto-extended TPS-related document. You should present the agency with a copy of the relevant FRN showing the extension of TPS-related documents in addition to your recent TPS-related document with your alien or I-94 number. You should explain that SAVE will be able to verify the continuation of your TPS. You should ask the agency to initiate a SAVE query with your information and follow through with additional verification steps, if necessary, to get a final SAVE response showing the TPS. You can also ask the agency to look for SAVE notices or contact SAVE if they have any questions about your immigration status or auto-extension of TPS-related documents.