Chapter 3 - Oath of Allegiance Modifications and Waivers
The table below serves as a quick reference guide on general requirements for oath modifications and oath waiver. The sections and paragraphs that follow the table provide further guidance on each modification and oath waiver.
Permitted Modifications to Oath
Testimony or Evidence
Modified Oath for Religious or Conscientious Objections
Deletion of either or both of the following clauses:
Bearing arms on behalf of the United States if required by law [INA 337(a)(5)(A)]; and
Performing noncombatant service in the U.S. armed forces when required by law [INA 337(a)(5)(B)]
Must show opposition to clause (or clauses) based on religious training and belief or deeply held moral or ethical code. Applicant may provide an attestation or witness statement.
Affirmation of Allegiance in Lieu of Oath
Substitution of the words “solemnly affirm” for the words “on oath” and no recitation of the words “so help me God” [8 CFR 337.1(b)]
Waiver of the Oath
Requirement to take the Oath of Allegiance may be waived
Evaluation by medical professional stating inability to understand (or communicate) the meaning of the oath due to a medical condition
An applicant may request a modified oath that does not contain one or both of the following clauses:
To bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by the law; and
To perform noncombatant service in the U.S. armed forces when required by the law. 
In order to modify the oath, the applicant must demonstrate, by clear and convincing evidence, that he or she is unwilling or unable to affirm to these sections of the oath based on his or her religious training and belief, which may include a deeply held moral or ethical code. 
There is no exemption from the clause “to perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law.” 
In order for an applicant to qualify for a modification based on his or her “religious training and belief,” the applicant must satisfy a three-part test. An applicant must establish that:
He or she is opposed to bearing arms in the armed forces or opposed to any type of Service in the armed forces
The objection is grounded in his or her religious principles, to include other belief systems similar to traditional religion or a deeply held moral or ethical code; and
His or her beliefs are sincere, meaningful, and deeply held. 
The applicant is not eligible for a modified oath when he or she is opposed to a specific war. Religious training or belief does not include essentially political, sociological, or philosophical views. An applicant whose objection to war is based upon opinions or beliefs about public policy and the practicality or desirability of combat, or whose beliefs are not deeply held, does not qualify for the modification of the oath.
Applicant is Not Required to Belong to a Church or Religion
In addition, qualification for the exemption is not dependent upon membership in a particular religious group, nor does membership in a specific religious group provide an automatic modification to the oath. The applicant is not required to:
Belong to a specific church or religious denomination;
Follow a particular theology or belief; or
Have religious training.
However, the applicant must have a sincere and meaningful belief that has a place in the applicant’s life that is equivalent to that of a religious belief.  Because of this belief, for example, the applicant’s conscience may not rest or be at peace if allowed to become an instrument of war. 
Evidence Establishing Eligibility
An applicant may provide, but is not required to provide, an attestation from a religious organization (or similar organization), witness statement, or any other evidence to establish eligibility. An applicant’s oral testimony or written statement may be sufficient to qualify for the modification. An officer may ask an applicant questions regarding the applicant’s beliefs in order to determine whether the applicant is eligible for the modification of the oath, to include, a review of the following factors:
General pattern of pertinent conduct and experiences;
Nature of applicant’s objection and principles on which objection is based;
Training in the home or a religious organization;
Participation in religious or other similar activities; and
Whether the applicant gained his or her ethical or moral beliefs through training, study, self-contemplation, or other activities comparable to formulating traditional religious beliefs in the home or through a religious organization.
An officer must not question the validity of what an applicant believes or the existence or truth of the concepts in which the applicant believes. 
Depending on the specific modified oath, USCIS deletes the relevant clauses and the applicant recites the modified form of the oath at the regularly scheduled public naturalization ceremony.  An applicant is required to take the full oath if the applicant does not qualify for the modification. Otherwise, the applicant is not eligible for naturalization.
An applicant may request an affirmation in lieu of an oath. The applicant may request this affirmation in lieu of an oath for any reason.  In these cases:
The applicant substitutes the words “solemnly affirm” for the words “on oath”; and
The applicant does not recite the words “so help me God.” 
USCIS grants this modification solely upon the applicant’s request. The applicant is not required to establish that the request is based solely on his or her religious training and belief. Applicants are not required to provide any documentary evidence or testimony to support a request to substitute the words “on oath” or “so help me God.”
USCIS must not require the applicant to recite the deleted portions of the Oath of Allegiance at the ceremony. The officer informs the applicant that he or she is not required to recite the deleted portions and that the applicant may take the oath in the modified form.
Oath Waiver Based on a Medical Disability
USCIS may waive the Oath of Allegiance for an applicant who is unable to understand or to communicate an understanding of its meaning because of a physical or developmental disability or mental impairment. 
An applicant for whom USCIS granted an oath waiver is considered to have met the requirement of attachment to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and be well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States for the required period.
In order for USCIS to adjudicate a request for an oath waiver because of a medical disability, an applicant with the assistance of a legal guardian, surrogate, or designated representative must provide a written request and a written evaluation by an authorized medical professional.  An applicant is not required to submit a specific form to request an oath waiver.  USCIS accepts an oath waiver request at any point of the naturalization process.
Oath Waiver for Children under 14 Years of Age
The INA permits USCIS to waive the taking of the Oath of Allegiance if USCIS determines the person is unable to understand its meaning.  USCIS has determined that children under the age of 14 are generally unable to understand the meaning of the oath. Accordingly, USCIS waives the oath requirement for a child younger than 14 years of age, at the time of naturalization. If USCIS waives the oath requirement, USCIS issues a Certificate of Citizenship after the officer approves the application. 
When an applicant is unable to undergo any part of the naturalization examination because of a physical or developmental disability or mental impairment, a legal guardian, surrogate, or an eligible designated representative completes the naturalization process for the applicant. USCIS waives the Oath of Allegiance and the legal guardian, surrogate, or designated representative attests to the applicant’s eligibility for naturalization.  In addition to oath waiver, this process may require accommodations including off-site examinations.
For USCIS to adjudicate a request for an oath waiver, an applicant with the assistance of a legal guardian, surrogate, or designated representative, must provide a written request and a written evaluation by an authorized medical professional.  USCIS accepts a request for the waiver at any point in the naturalization process until the time of the oath ceremony. As an accommodation, field offices should work with the legal guardian, surrogate, or designated representative before the initial examination to obtain all the necessary documentation.
When an oath waiver is provided, a legal guardian, surrogate, or designated representative  signs on behalf of an applicant who is unable to understand or communicate an understanding of the Oath of Allegiance because of a physical or developmental disability or mental impairment. The legal guardian, surrogate, or representative acts on behalf of an applicant with a disability at every stage of the naturalization examination. The legal guardian, surrogate, or representative files the application on behalf of the applicant and must have knowledge of the facts supporting the applicant’s eligibility for naturalization.
The guardian, surrogate, or representative addresses every requirement for naturalization and bears the burden of establishing the applicant’s eligibility for naturalization.
Persons eligible to act on behalf of the applicant include:
A person who a proper court has designated as the applicant’s legal guardian or surrogate and who is authorized to exercise legal authority over the applicant’s affairs;  or
In the absence of a legal guardian or surrogate, a U.S. citizen spouse, parent, adult son or daughter, or adult brother or sister, who is the primary custodial caregiver and who takes responsibility for the applicant.
USCIS will only recognize one designated representative in the following order of priority: 
Legal guardian or surrogate (highest priority)
U.S. citizen spouse
U.S. citizen parent
U.S. citizen adult son or daughter
U.S. citizen adult brother or sister (lowest priority)
The person acting on behalf of the applicant must provide proof of legal guardianship, or documentation to establish the familial relationship, such as a birth certificate, marriage certificate, or adoption decree. In addition, the person must provide documentation to establish that he or she has the primary custodial care and responsibility for the applicant (for example, income tax returns, Social Security Administration documents, and affidavits from other relatives). A spouse, parent, adult son or daughter, or adult brother or sister who is not the legal guardian or surrogate must provide evidence of U.S. citizenship.
USCIS continues an application where the family member acting as a designated representative is not a U.S. citizen. USCIS explains to the family member why he or she is not qualified to act as a designated representative and offers the applicant an opportunity to bring another person who may qualify.
In general, USCIS requires a written evaluation to establish the applicant’s inability to take the Oath of Allegiance. An applicant or designated representative requesting an oath waiver submits a written evaluation completed by a medical professional licensed to practice in the United States.
The written evaluation must:
Be completed by the medical professional who has had the longest relationship with the applicant or is most familiar with the applicant’s medical history;
Express the applicant’s medical condition and disability in terms that an officer and the designated representative can understand (except for medical definitions or terms to describe the disability);
State why and how the applicant is unable to understand or communicate an understanding of the meaning of the Oath of Allegiance because of the disability;
Indicate the likelihood of the applicant being able to communicate or demonstrate an understanding of the meaning of the Oath of Allegiance in the near future; and
Be signed by the medical professional completing the written evaluation and contain his or her state license number authorizing the medical professional to practice in the United States.
USCIS will not require medical professionals to provide an explanation of how they reached their diagnosis, a listing of clinical or laboratory techniques used to reach the diagnosis, or supporting documentation to establish the claimed disability. USCIS, however, will require the medical professional to provide a thorough explanation of how the applicant’s disability impairs his or her functioning so severely that the applicant is unable to demonstrate an understanding of the oath requirements or communicate an understanding of its meaning.
USCIS reserves the right to request documentation if there is a question upon examination about the applicant’s disability and ability to understand the oath requirement. If USCIS approves the oath waiver, USCIS does not require the applicant to appear in a public ceremony.
2. [^] The Supreme Court has addressed the meaning of “religious training and belief” in the context of exemptions from military service under section 6(j) of the Universal Military Training and Service Act.” See Welsh v. United States, 398 U.S. 333 (1970) (holding that Welsh, who characterized his beliefs as nonreligious and expressed doubt in the existence of a Supreme Being, was entitled to a conscientious objector exemption to military service because his beliefs occupied a parallel place in his life to that of religious convictions); United States. v. Seeger, 380 U.S. 163 (1965) (stating that the applicable test for determining whether someone’s belief was based on religious training and belief was whether the belief was sincere and meaningful and “occup[ied] in the life of its possessor a place parallel to that filled by the God of those admittedly qualifying for the exemption”). See INA 337(a) which contains virtually the same language regarding religious training and belief as was addressed by the Supreme Court in Welsh and Seeger.
5. [^] See Welsh v. United States, 398 U.S. 333 (1970). See United States. v. Seeger, 380 U.S. 163 (1965).
6. [^] See Welsh v. United States, 398 U.S. 333 (1970).
7. [^] See United States. v. Seeger, 380 U.S. 163 (1965): “The validity of what he believes cannot be questioned. Some theologians, and indeed some examiners, might be tempted to question the existence of the registrant’s ‘Supreme Being’ or the truth of his concepts. But these are inquiries foreclosed to Government.”
9. [^] The INA indicates that the affirmation is requested “by reason of religious training and belief (or individual interpretation thereof), or for other reasons of good conscience.” See INA 337(a).
12. [^] For information on who is an authorized medical professional, see Part E, English and Civics Testing and Exceptions, Chapter 3, Medical Disability Exception (Form N-648), Section C, Authorized Medical Professionals [12 USCIS-PM E.3(C)].
13. [^] The oath waiver requirements are distinct from the requirements for the medical exception to the English and civics requirements for naturalization under INA 312(b), which requires an applicant to submit a medical exception form. See Part E, English and Civics Testing and Exceptions, Chapter 3, Medical Disability Exception (Form N-648) [12 USCIS-PM E.3].
17. [^] For the definition of an authorized medical professional, see Part E, English and Civics Testing and Exceptions, Chapter 3, Medical Disability Exception (Form N-648), Section C, Authorized Medical Professionals [12 USCIS-PM E.3(C)].
19. [^] A legal guardian or surrogate may act on behalf of an applicant regardless of the legal guardian or surrogate’s immigration status or whether he or she is a family member.
20. [^] If there is a conflict in priority between two or more persons seeking to represent the applicant, and the individuals share the same degree of familial relationship, USCIS gives priority to the person who is older.
No appendices available at this time.
Technical Update - Moving the Adjudicator’s Field Manual Content into the USCIS Policy ManualMay 21, 2020
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is updating and incorporating relevant Adjudicator’s Field Manual (AFM) content into the USCIS Policy Manual. As that process is ongoing, USCIS has moved any remaining AFM content to its corresponding USCIS Policy Manual Part, in PDF format, until relevant AFM content has been properly incorporated into the USCIS Policy Manual. To the extent that a provision in the USCIS Policy Manual conflicts with remaining AFM content or Policy Memoranda, the updated information in the USCIS Policy Manual prevails. To find remaining AFM content, see the crosswalk between the AFM and the Policy Manual.
Technical Update - Replacing the Term “Foreign National”October 08, 2019
This technical update replaces all instances of the term “foreign national” with “alien” throughout the Policy Manual as used to refer to a person who meets the definition provided in INA 101(a)(3) [“any person not a citizen or national of the United States”].
Technical Update - Authorized Medical ProfessionalsSeptember 26, 2018
This technical update provides clarification on the medical professionals (medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and clinical psychologists) authorized to complete a written evaluation of medical condition in connection with an oath waiver request.
POLICY ALERT - Modifications to Oath of Allegiance for NaturalizationJuly 21, 2015
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is issuing policy guidance to clarify the eligibility requirements for modifications to the Oath of Renunciation and Allegiance for naturalization.
POLICY ALERT - Comprehensive Citizenship and Naturalization Policy GuidanceJanuary 07, 2013
USCIS is issuing updated and comprehensive citizenship and naturalization policy guidance in the new USCIS Policy Manual.