Skip to main content

Chapter 6 - Deference

There are distinct eligibility requirements at each stage of the EB-5 immigration process. Where USCIS has previously evaluated and approved certain aspects of an investment, USCIS generally defers to that favorable determination at a later stage in the process. This deference policy promotes predictability for immigrant investors, new commercial enterprises, and their employees. Deference also conserves scarce agency resources, which should not ordinarily be used to duplicate previous efforts.

As a general matter, USCIS does not reexamine determinations made earlier in the EB-5 process, and such earlier determinations will be presumed to have been properly decided. When USCIS has previously concluded that an economic methodology is reasonable to project future job creation as applied to the facts of a particular project, USCIS defers to this determination for all related adjudications directly linked to the specific project for which the economic methodology was previously approved. 

For example, if USCIS approves an Application For Regional Center Under the Immigrant Investor Program (Form I-924) or an Immigrant Petition by Alien Investor (Form I-526) presenting a Matter of Ho (PDF) compliant business plan and a specific economic methodology, USCIS will defer to the earlier finding that the methodology was reasonable in subsequent adjudications of Form I-526 presenting the same related facts and methodology. However, USCIS will still conduct a de novo review of each prospective immigrant investor’s lawful source of funds and other individualized eligibility criteria. 

Conversely, USCIS does not defer to a previously favorable decision in later proceedings when, for example, the underlying facts, upon which a favorable decision was made, have materially changed, there is evidence of fraud or misrepresentation, or the previously favorable decision is determined to be legally deficient. A change is material if it would have a natural tendency to influence, or is predictably capable of affecting, the decision. [1] 

When a new filing involves a different project from a previous approval, or the same previously approved project with material changes to the project plan, USCIS does not defer to the previous adjudication. 

Since prior determinations will be presumed to have been properly decided, a prior favorable determination will not be considered legally deficient for purposes of according deference unless the prior determination involved an objective mistake of fact or an objective mistake of law evidencing ineligibility for the benefit sought, but excluding those subjective evaluations related to evaluating eligibility. Unless there is reason to believe that a prior adjudication involved an objective mistake of fact or law, officers should not reexamine determinations made earlier in the EB-5 process. Absent a material change in facts, fraud, or willful misrepresentation, officers should not re-adjudicate prior agency determinations that are subjective, such as whether the business plan is comprehensive and credible or whether an economic methodology estimating job creation is reasonable.

Footnote


[^ 1] See Kungys v. United States, 485 U.S. 759, 770-72 (1988).

Appendices

No appendices available at this time.

Updates

Technical Update - Moving the Adjudicator’s Field Manual Content into the USCIS Policy Manual

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is updating and incorporating relevant Adjudicator’s Field Manual (AFM) content into the USCIS Policy Manual. As that process is ongoing, USCIS has moved any remaining AFM content to its corresponding USCIS Policy Manual Part, in PDF format, until relevant AFM content has been properly incorporated into the USCIS Policy Manual. To the extent that a provision in the USCIS Policy Manual conflicts with remaining AFM content or Policy Memoranda, the updated information in the USCIS Policy Manual prevails. To find remaining AFM content, see the crosswalk (PDF) between the AFM and the Policy Manual.

Technical Update - Replacing the Term “Foreign National”

This technical update replaces all instances of the term “foreign national” with “alien” throughout the Policy Manual as used to refer to a person who meets the definition provided in INA 101(a)(3) [“any person not a citizen or national of the United States”].

POLICY ALERT - Geographic Area of a Regional Center

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is updating guidance in the USCIS Policy Manual regarding a regional center’s geographic area, requests to expand the geographic area, and how such requests impact the filing of Form I-526, Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur.

Read More
POLICY ALERT - Job Creation and Capital At Risk Requirements for Investors

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is updating the USCIS Policy Manual to provide further guidance regarding the job creation and capital at risk requirements for Form I-526, Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, and Form I-829, Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions on Permanent Resident Status.

Read More
POLICY ALERT - Employment-Based Fifth Preference Immigrants: Investors

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is issuing policy guidance regarding the eligibility requirements for regional centers and immigrant investors.

Read More